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Title: Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

Abstract

The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effects of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1347563
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1334596; OSTI ID: 1476458
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-67423
Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 160; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; copper-indium-gallium-selenide; CIGS; XAS; chemical bath deposition; surface analysis

Citation Formats

Schwartz, Craig, Nordlund, Dennis, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Contreras, Miguel, Weng, Tsu-Chien, Mansfield, Lorelle, Hurst, Katherine E., Dameron, Arrelaine, Ramanathan, Kannan, Prendergast, David, and Christensen, Steven T. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.11.003.
Schwartz, Craig, Nordlund, Dennis, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Contreras, Miguel, Weng, Tsu-Chien, Mansfield, Lorelle, Hurst, Katherine E., Dameron, Arrelaine, Ramanathan, Kannan, Prendergast, David, & Christensen, Steven T. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.11.003.
Schwartz, Craig, Nordlund, Dennis, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Contreras, Miguel, Weng, Tsu-Chien, Mansfield, Lorelle, Hurst, Katherine E., Dameron, Arrelaine, Ramanathan, Kannan, Prendergast, David, and Christensen, Steven T. Wed . "Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)". United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2016.11.003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1347563.
@article{osti_1347563,
title = {Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)},
author = {Schwartz, Craig and Nordlund, Dennis and Sokaras, Dimosthenis and Contreras, Miguel and Weng, Tsu-Chien and Mansfield, Lorelle and Hurst, Katherine E. and Dameron, Arrelaine and Ramanathan, Kannan and Prendergast, David and Christensen, Steven T.},
abstractNote = {The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effects of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solmat.2016.11.003},
journal = {Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells},
number = C,
volume = 160,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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