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Title: Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH 3NH 3PbI 3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons

Abstract

The intrinsic properties of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 are still largely unknown in spite of the great amount of attention it has received for its solar cell application. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, we apply this method to characterize a CH 3NH 3PbI 3 single crystal.We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. These results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm 2V -1 s -1 , respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH 3NH 3PbI 3.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry and NanoLund
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1347386
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012541
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; characterization and analytical techniques; solar cells; ultrafast photonics

Citation Formats

Mante, Pierre-Adrien, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., and Yartsev, Arkady. Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms14398.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., & Yartsev, Arkady. Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14398.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., and Yartsev, Arkady. Wed . "Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms14398. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1347386.
@article{osti_1347386,
title = {Electron–acoustic phonon coupling in single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites revealed by coherent acoustic phonons},
author = {Mante, Pierre-Adrien and Stoumpos, Constantinos C. and Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. and Yartsev, Arkady},
abstractNote = {The intrinsic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 are still largely unknown in spite of the great amount of attention it has received for its solar cell application. Mobility of charges is a quintessential property in this aspect; however, there is still no clear understanding of electron transport, as reported values span over three orders of magnitude. Here we develop a method to measure the electron and hole deformation potentials using coherent acoustic phonons generated by femtosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, we apply this method to characterize a CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal.We measure the acoustic phonon properties and characterize electron-acoustic phonon scattering. Then, using the deformation potential theory, we calculate the carrier intrinsic mobility and compare it to the reported experimental and theoretical values. These results reveal high electron and hole mobilities of 2,800 and 9,400 cm2V-1 s -1 , respectively. Comparison with literature values of mobility demonstrates the potential role played by polarons in charge transport in CH3NH3PbI3.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms14398},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 08 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 08 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 15works
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  • A hot phonon bottleneck may be responsible for slow hot carrier cooling in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite, creating the potential for more efficient hot carrier photovoltaics. In room-temperature 2D electronic spectra near the band edge, we observe in this paper amplitude oscillations due to a remarkably long lived 0.9 THz coherent phonon population at room temperature. This phonon (or set of phonons) is assigned to angular distortions of the Pb–I lattice, not coupled to cation rotations. The strong coupling between the electronic transition and the 0.9 THz mode(s), together with relative isolation from other phonon modes, makes it likelymore » to cause a phonon bottleneck. Finally, the pump frequency resolution of the 2D spectra also enables independent observation of photoinduced absorptions and bleaches independently and confirms that features due to band gap renormalization are longer-lived than in transient absorption spectra.« less
  • Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH 3NH 3PbI 3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH 3NH 3PbI 3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm –2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smallermore » trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less
  • Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH 3NH 3PbI 3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH 3NH 3PbI 3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm –2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smallermore » trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less
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  • Here, we study the temperature-dependent phonon modes of the organometallic lead iodide perovskite CH 3NH 3PbI 3 thin film across the terahertz (0.5–3 THz) and temperature (20–300 K) ranges. These modes are related to the vibration of the Pb–I bonds. We found that two phonon modes in the tetragonal phase at room temperature split into four modes in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase. By use of the Lorentz model fitting, we also analyze the critical behavior of this phase transition. The carrier mobility values calculated from the low-temperature phonon mode frequencies, via two theoretical approaches, are found to agree reasonably withmore » the experimental value (~2000 cm 2 V –1 s –1) from a previous time-resolved THz spectroscopy work. Thus, we have established a possible link between terahertz phonon modes and the transport properties of perovskite-based solar cells.« less
  • Organometal halide perovskite semiconductors have emerged as promising candidates for optoelectronic applications because of the outstanding charge carrier transport properties, achieved with low-temperature synthesis. In this paper, we present highly sensitive sub-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements of Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH 3NH 3Pb(I 1–xBr x) 3/TiO 2/FTO/glass photovoltaic devices. The room-temperature spectra show exponential band tails with a sharp onset characterized by low Urbach energies (E u) over the full halide composition space. The Urbach energies are 15–23 meV, lower than those for most semiconductors with similar bandgaps (especially with E g > 1.9 eV). Intentional aging of CH 3NH 3Pb(I 1–xBrmore » x) 3 for up to 2300 h, reveals no change in E u, despite the appearance of the PbI 2 phase due to decomposition, and confirms a high degree of crystal ordering. Moreover, sub-bandgap EQE measurements reveal an extended band of sub-bandgap electronic states that can be fit with one or two point defects for pure CH 3NH 3PbI 3 or mixed CH 3NH 3Pb(I 1–xBr x) 3 compositions, respectively. Finally, the study provides experimental evidence of defect states close to the midgap that could impact photocarrier recombination and energy conversion efficiency in higher bandgap CH 3NH 3Pb(I 1–xBr x) 3 alloys.« less