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Title: Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces

Abstract

The UND-CLR Binary Geothermal Power Plant was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Continental Resources, Inc. (CRL), Slope Electric Cooperative (SEC), Access Energy, LLC (AE), Basin Electric Cooperative (BEC), Olson Construction, the North Dakota Industrial Commission Renewable Energy Council (NDIC-REC), the North Dakota Department of Commerce Centers of Excellence Program (NDDC-COE), and the University of North Dakota (UND). The primary objective of project was to demonstrate/test the technical and economic feasibility of generating electricity from non-conventional, low-temperature (90 ºC to 150 °C) geothermal resources using binary technology. CLR provided the access to 98 ºC water flowing at 51 l s-1 at the Davis Water Injection Plan in Bowman County, ND. Funding for the project was from DOE –GTO, NDIC-REC, NDD-COE, and BEC. Logistics, on-site construction, and power grid access were facilitated by Slope Electric Cooperative and Olson Construction. Access Energy supplied prototype organic Rankine Cycle engines for the project. The potential power output from this project is 250 kW at a cost of $3,400 per kW. A key factor in the economics of this project is a significant advance in binary power technology by Access Energy, LLC. Other commercially available ORC engines have efficiencies 8 tomore » 10 percent and produce 50 to 250 kW per unit. The AE ORC units are designed to generate 125 kW with efficiencies up to 14 percent and they can be installed in arrays of tens of units to produce several MW of power where geothermal waters are available. This demonstration project is small but the potential for large-scale development in deeper, hotter formations is promising. The UND team’s analysis of the entire Williston Basin using data on porosity, formation thicknesses, and fluid temperatures reveals that 4.0 x 1019 Joules of energy is available and that 1.36 x 109 MWh of power could be produced using ORC binary power plants. Much of the infrastructure necessary to develop extensive geothermal power in the Williston Basin exists as abandoned oil and gas wells. Re-completing wells for water production could provide local power throughout the basin thus reducing power loss through transmission over long distances. Water production in normal oil and gas operations is relatively low by design, but it could be one to two orders of magnitude greater in wells completed and pumped for water production. A promising method for geothermal power production recognized in this project is drilling horizontal open-hole wells in the permeable carbonate aquifers. Horizontal drilling in the aquifers increases borehole exposure to the resource and consequently increases the capacity for fluid production by up to an order of magnitude.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)
  2. Chemical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Office (EE-4G)
OSTI Identifier:
1347216
Report Number(s):
DE-EE0002854
DOE Contract Number:
EE0002854
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; Binary Power; Low Temperature Resources

Citation Formats

Gosnold, William, Mann, Michael, and Salehfar, Hossein. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1347216.
Gosnold, William, Mann, Michael, & Salehfar, Hossein. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces. United States. doi:10.2172/1347216.
Gosnold, William, Mann, Michael, and Salehfar, Hossein. Mon . "Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces". United States. doi:10.2172/1347216. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1347216.
@article{osti_1347216,
title = {Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces},
author = {Gosnold, William and Mann, Michael and Salehfar, Hossein},
abstractNote = {The UND-CLR Binary Geothermal Power Plant was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Continental Resources, Inc. (CRL), Slope Electric Cooperative (SEC), Access Energy, LLC (AE), Basin Electric Cooperative (BEC), Olson Construction, the North Dakota Industrial Commission Renewable Energy Council (NDIC-REC), the North Dakota Department of Commerce Centers of Excellence Program (NDDC-COE), and the University of North Dakota (UND). The primary objective of project was to demonstrate/test the technical and economic feasibility of generating electricity from non-conventional, low-temperature (90 ºC to 150 °C) geothermal resources using binary technology. CLR provided the access to 98 ºC water flowing at 51 l s-1 at the Davis Water Injection Plan in Bowman County, ND. Funding for the project was from DOE –GTO, NDIC-REC, NDD-COE, and BEC. Logistics, on-site construction, and power grid access were facilitated by Slope Electric Cooperative and Olson Construction. Access Energy supplied prototype organic Rankine Cycle engines for the project. The potential power output from this project is 250 kW at a cost of $3,400 per kW. A key factor in the economics of this project is a significant advance in binary power technology by Access Energy, LLC. Other commercially available ORC engines have efficiencies 8 to 10 percent and produce 50 to 250 kW per unit. The AE ORC units are designed to generate 125 kW with efficiencies up to 14 percent and they can be installed in arrays of tens of units to produce several MW of power where geothermal waters are available. This demonstration project is small but the potential for large-scale development in deeper, hotter formations is promising. The UND team’s analysis of the entire Williston Basin using data on porosity, formation thicknesses, and fluid temperatures reveals that 4.0 x 1019 Joules of energy is available and that 1.36 x 109 MWh of power could be produced using ORC binary power plants. Much of the infrastructure necessary to develop extensive geothermal power in the Williston Basin exists as abandoned oil and gas wells. Re-completing wells for water production could provide local power throughout the basin thus reducing power loss through transmission over long distances. Water production in normal oil and gas operations is relatively low by design, but it could be one to two orders of magnitude greater in wells completed and pumped for water production. A promising method for geothermal power production recognized in this project is drilling horizontal open-hole wells in the permeable carbonate aquifers. Horizontal drilling in the aquifers increases borehole exposure to the resource and consequently increases the capacity for fluid production by up to an order of magnitude.},
doi = {10.2172/1347216},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This project was designed to test the concept on the Eland-Lodgepole Field near Dickinson, North Dakota in the Williston Basin. The field is in secondary-recovery water-flood and consists of 12 producing oil wells, 5 water injection wells and one disposal well. Water production at the site averages approximately 320 gallons per minute (20.2 l s-1) and the temperature is 100 ⁰C. Engineers at Ormat estimated power production potential with the existing resource to be approximately 350 kWh. Unfortunately, ownership of the field was transferred from Encore, Inc., to Denbury, Inc., within the first week of the project. After two yearsmore » of discussion and planning, Denbury decided not to pursue this project due to complications with the site location and its proximity to Patterson Lake. Attempts to find other partners operating in the Williston Basin were unsuccessful. Consequently, we were unable to pursue the primary objective of the project. However, during negations with Denbury and subsequent time spent contacting other potential partners, we focused on objectives 2 and 3 and developed a clear understanding of the potential for co-produced production in the Williston Basin and the best practices for developing similar projects. At least nine water bearing formations with temperatures greater than 90 ⁰C extend over areas of several 10s of km2. The total energy contained in the rock volume of those geothermal aquifers is 283.6 EJ (1 EJ = 1018 J). The total energy contained in the water volume, determined from porosities which range from 2 percent to 8 percent, is 6.8 EJ. The aquifers grouped by 10 ⁰C temperature bins (Table 1) include one or more formations due to the bowl-shape structure of the basin. Table 1. Summary of energy available in geothermal aquifers in the Williston Basin Analysis of overall fluid production from active wells, units, fields and formations in North Dakota showed that few sites co-produce sufficient fluid for significant power production with ORC technology. Average co-produced water for 10,480 wells is 3.2 gallons per minute (gpm). Even excluding the tight formations, Bakken and Three Forks, average co-produced water for the remaining 3,337 is only 5 gpm. The output of the highest producing well is 184 gpm and the average of the top 100 wells is 52 gpm. Due to the depth of the oil producing formations in the Williston Basin, typically 3 km or greater, pumps are operated slowly to prevent watering out thus total fluid production is purposefully maintained at low volumes. There remain potential possibilities for development of geothermal fluids in the Williston Basin. Unitized fields in which water production from several tens of wells is collected at a single site are good possibilities for development. Water production in the unitized fields is greater than 1000 gpm is several areas. A similar possibility occurs where infill-drilling between Bakken and Three Forks horizontal wells has created areas where large volumes of geothermal fluids are available on multi-well pads and in unitized fields. Although the Bakken produces small amounts of water, the water/oil ration is typically less than 1, the oil and water mix produced at the well head can be sent through the heat exchanger on an ORC. It is estimated that several tens of MWh of power could be generated by a distributed system of ORC engines in the areas of high-density drilling in the Bakken Formation. Finally, horizontal drilling in water bearing formations is the other possibility. Several secondary recovery water-flood projects in the basin are producing water above 100 ⁰C at rates of 300 gpm to 850 gpm. Those systems also could produce several tens of MWh of power with ORC technology. Objective 3 of the project was highly successful. The program has produced 5 PhDs, 7 MS, and 3 BS students with theses in geothermal energy. The team has involved 7 faculty in 4 different engineering and science disciplines, ChE, EE, GE, and Geol. The team has produced 26 peer-reviewed papers and 62 presentations at professional meetings. Faculty involved in the program developed five graduate level courses covering different elements in heat flow and geothermal energy that are now offered in the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering. Lessons learned – Keys to developing a successful project;1. Determine target formations; a. Data from oil and gas operators, state oil and gas regulatory agencies, and state geological surveys help to identify producing formations and their properties; 2. Determine the quantity of energy available in the target formations; a. A complete thermal analysis of the basin or region yields the most useful information; b. Critical data include: BHT, heat flow, stratigraphy, lithology, lithological properties, and thermal conductivity, subsurface structure; 3. Determine fluid production potential; a. State oil and gas regulatory agencies, and state geological surveys have data on oil, gas and water production. State Water Commission/Agencies have data on water quality, aquifers, and regulations; b. Consider single horizontal wells, multiple conventional wells, and unitized fields; 4. Calculate energy production capacity of each formation based on different well combination and power plant scenarios. This is a broad overview rather than a site specific analysis; 5. Research and understand the local electrical power industry. Obtain the PPA before committing to the project; 6. Work with the high-level personnel in the oil company partner. Obtain an MOU that addresses all issues in the project including what to expect if the company goes out of business, is bought out, changes management, etc; and 7. Be prepared for project delays.« less
  • A conceptual design has been developed for a solar industrial process heat system. At the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Terminal in Mobile, Alabama, the 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process steam or heat at temperatures ranging from 150/sup 0/ to 290/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/ to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored oils and petrochemicals, making them easier to pump from storage. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44% of the process heat required.
  • A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heatmore » exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.« less
  • Three 600 Mw electric power plants incorporating C-E low Btu coal gasification at atmospheric pressure are compared. Plant A is a conventional steam cycle; Plant C is a gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle, with two 1800/sup 0/F gas turbines and a supplementary fired boiler; Plant D is a combined cycle with four 2200/sup 0/F gas turbines and unfired boilers. Optimization studies determine the best individual plant schemes. Design and performance of the three plants are discussed. Equipment selections are described for gasification, power production, and balance of plant. Overall operating cost evaluations are developed. The economic effects of changing themore » product gas heating value by plus or minus 25% are investigated. The Plant A and C power production costs are approximately the same as a new coal fired coventional steam plant with stack gas scrubbers. Plant D's power production costs are 6% lower than those of Plants A, C, or a conventional plant with scrubbers. Therefore, Plant D has excellent potential for the near future coal-fired power plant market, with only a minimum of new technology for the atmospheric pressure gasifiers. In addition, coal gasification power plants A, C and D have the technical potential for meeting future more stringent emission limitations without significant increases in power production costs. The probable future environmental limitations might not be technically attainable by scrubber equipped plants, even with the expenditure of significantly greater funds.« less
  • Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate andmore » peak-load electric power.« less