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Title: SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy

Abstract

Single-molecule spectroscopy has made considerable impact on many disciplines including chemistry, physics, and biology. To date, most single-molecule spectroscopy work is accomplished by detecting fluorescence. On the other hand, many naturally occurring chromophores, such as retinal, hemoglobin and cytochromes, do not have detectable fluorescence. There is an emerging need for single-molecule spectroscopy techniques that do not require fluorescence. In the last proposal period, we have successfully demonstrated stimulated emission microscopy, single molecule absorption, and stimulated Raman microscopy based on a high-frequency modulation transfer technique. These first-of-a- kind new spectroscopy/microscopy methods tremendously improved our ability to observe molecules that fluorescence weakly, even to the limit of single molecule detection for absorption measurement. All of these methods employ two laser beams: one (pump beam) excites a single molecule to a real or virtual excited state, and the other (probe beam) monitors the absorption/emission property of the single. We extract the intensity change of the probe beam with high sensitivity by implementing a high-frequency phase-sensitive detection scheme, which offers orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity over direct absorption/emission measurement. However, single molecule detection based on fluorescence or absorption is fundamentally limited due to their broad spectral response. It is important to exploremore » other avenues in single molecule detection and imaging which provides higher molecular specificity for studying a wide variety of heterogeneous chemical and biological systems. This proposal aimed to achieve single-molecule detection sensitivity with near resonance stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. SRS microscopy was developed in our lab as a powerful technique for imaging heterogeneous samples based on their intrinsic vibrational contrasts, which provides much higher molecular specificity than absorption and fluorescence. Current sensitivity limit of SRS microscopy has not yet reached single molecule detection. We proposed to capitalize on our state-of-the-art SRS microscopy and develop near-resonance enhanced SRS for single molecule detection of carotenoids and heme proteins. The specific aims we pursued are: (1) building the next SRS generation microscope that utilizes near resonance enhancement to allow detection and imaging of single molecules with undetectable fluorescence, such as -carotene. (2) using near-resonance SRS as a contrast mechanism to study dye-sensitize semiconductor interface, elucidating the heterogeneous electron ejection kinetics with high spatial and temporal resolution. (3) studying the binding and unbinding of oxygen in single hemoglobin molecules in order to gain molecular level understanding of the long-standing issue of cooperativity. The new methods developed in the fund period of this grant have advanced the detection sensitivity in many aspects. Near-resonance SRS improved the signal by using shorter wavelengths for SRS microscopy. Frequency modulation and multi-color SRS target the reduction of background to improve the chemical specificity of SRS while maintaining the high imaging speed. Time-domain coherent Raman scattering microscopy targets to reduce the noise floor of coherent Raman microscopy. These methods have already demonstrated first-of-a-kind new applications in biology and medical research. However, we are still one order of magnitude away from single molecule limit. It is important to continue to improve the laser specification and develop new imaging methods to finally achieve label-free single molecule microscopy.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1346869
Report Number(s):
DOE-Harvard-SC0001548-01
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0001548
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Raman; SRS; label-free; resonance; spectral-focusing; multi-color; frequency modulation; acetylcholine laser

Citation Formats

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney. SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1346869.
Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney. SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy. United States. doi:10.2172/1346869.
Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney. Mon . "SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy". United States. doi:10.2172/1346869. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346869.
@article{osti_1346869,
title = {SISGR: Room Temperature Single-Molecule Detection and Imaging by Stimulated Emission Microscopy},
author = {Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney},
abstractNote = {Single-molecule spectroscopy has made considerable impact on many disciplines including chemistry, physics, and biology. To date, most single-molecule spectroscopy work is accomplished by detecting fluorescence. On the other hand, many naturally occurring chromophores, such as retinal, hemoglobin and cytochromes, do not have detectable fluorescence. There is an emerging need for single-molecule spectroscopy techniques that do not require fluorescence. In the last proposal period, we have successfully demonstrated stimulated emission microscopy, single molecule absorption, and stimulated Raman microscopy based on a high-frequency modulation transfer technique. These first-of-a- kind new spectroscopy/microscopy methods tremendously improved our ability to observe molecules that fluorescence weakly, even to the limit of single molecule detection for absorption measurement. All of these methods employ two laser beams: one (pump beam) excites a single molecule to a real or virtual excited state, and the other (probe beam) monitors the absorption/emission property of the single. We extract the intensity change of the probe beam with high sensitivity by implementing a high-frequency phase-sensitive detection scheme, which offers orders of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity over direct absorption/emission measurement. However, single molecule detection based on fluorescence or absorption is fundamentally limited due to their broad spectral response. It is important to explore other avenues in single molecule detection and imaging which provides higher molecular specificity for studying a wide variety of heterogeneous chemical and biological systems. This proposal aimed to achieve single-molecule detection sensitivity with near resonance stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. SRS microscopy was developed in our lab as a powerful technique for imaging heterogeneous samples based on their intrinsic vibrational contrasts, which provides much higher molecular specificity than absorption and fluorescence. Current sensitivity limit of SRS microscopy has not yet reached single molecule detection. We proposed to capitalize on our state-of-the-art SRS microscopy and develop near-resonance enhanced SRS for single molecule detection of carotenoids and heme proteins. The specific aims we pursued are: (1) building the next SRS generation microscope that utilizes near resonance enhancement to allow detection and imaging of single molecules with undetectable fluorescence, such as -carotene. (2) using near-resonance SRS as a contrast mechanism to study dye-sensitize semiconductor interface, elucidating the heterogeneous electron ejection kinetics with high spatial and temporal resolution. (3) studying the binding and unbinding of oxygen in single hemoglobin molecules in order to gain molecular level understanding of the long-standing issue of cooperativity. The new methods developed in the fund period of this grant have advanced the detection sensitivity in many aspects. Near-resonance SRS improved the signal by using shorter wavelengths for SRS microscopy. Frequency modulation and multi-color SRS target the reduction of background to improve the chemical specificity of SRS while maintaining the high imaging speed. Time-domain coherent Raman scattering microscopy targets to reduce the noise floor of coherent Raman microscopy. These methods have already demonstrated first-of-a-kind new applications in biology and medical research. However, we are still one order of magnitude away from single molecule limit. It is important to continue to improve the laser specification and develop new imaging methods to finally achieve label-free single molecule microscopy.},
doi = {10.2172/1346869},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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