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Title: Recent Measurement of Flavor Asymmetry of Antiquarks in the Proton by Drell–Yan Experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab

Abstract

A measurement of the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks ($$\bar{d}$$ and $$\bar{u}$$) in the proton is described in this thesis. The proton consists of three valence quarks, sea quarks, and gluons. Antiquarks in the proton are sea quarks. They are generated from the gluon splitting: g → q + $$\bar{q}$$. According to QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics), the gluon splitting is independent of quark flavor. It suggests that the amounts of $$\bar{d}$$ and $$\bar{u}$$ should be the same in the proton. However, the NMC experiment at CERN found that the amount of $$\bar{d}$$ is larger than that of $$\bar{u}$$ in the proton using the deep inelastic scattering in 1991. This result is obtained for $$\bar{d}$$ and $$\bar{u}$$ integrated over Bjorken x. Bjorken x is the fraction of the momentum of the parton to that of the proton. The NA51 experiment (x ~ 0.2) at CERN and E866/NuSea experiment (0.015 < x < 0.35) at Fermilab measured the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks ($$\bar{d}$$/$$\bar{u}$$) in the proton as a function of x using Drell–Yan process. The experiments reported that the flavor symmetry is broken over all measured x values. Understanding the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks in the proton is a challenge of the QCD. The theo- retical investigation from the first principle of QCD such as lattice QCD calculation is important. In addition, the QCD effective models and hadron models such as the meson cloud model can also be tested with the flavor asymmetry of antiquarks. From the experimental side, it is important to measure with higher accuracy and in a wider x range. The SeaQuest (E906) experiment measures $$\bar{d}$$/$$\bar{u}$$ at large x (0.15 < x < 0.45) accurately to understand its behavior. The SeaQuest experiment is a Drell–Yan experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). In the Drell–Yan process of proton-proton reaction, an antiquark in a proton and a quark in another proton annihilate and create a virtual photon, which then decays into a muon pair (q$$\bar{q}$$ → γ* → µ +µ -). The SeaQuest experiment uses a 120 GeV proton beam extracted from Fermilab’s Main Injector. The proton beam interacts with hydrogen and deuterium targets. The SeaQuest spectrometer detects the muon pairs from the Drell–Yan process. The $$\bar{d}$$/$$\bar{u}$$ ratio at 0.1 < x < 0.58 is extracted from the number of detected Drell–Yan muon pairs. After the detector construction, commissioning run and detector upgrade, the SeaQuest experiment started the physics data acquisition from 2013. We finished so far three periods of physics data acquisition. The fourth period is in progress. The detector construction, detector performance evaluation, data taking and data analysis for the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks $$\bar{d}$$/$$\bar{u}$$ in the proton are my contribution to SeaQuest. The cross section ratio of Drell–Yan process in p- p and p-d reactions is obtained from dimuon yields. In the experiment with high beam intensity, it is important to control the tracking efficiency of charged particles through the magnetic spectrometer. The tracking efficiency depends on the chamber occupancy, and the appropriate method for the correction is important. The chamber occupancy is the number of hits in drift chambers. A new method of the correction for the tracking efficiency is developed based on the occupancy, and applied to the data. This method reflects the real response of the drift chambers. Therefore, the systematic error is well controlled by this method. The flavor asymmetry of antiquarks is obtained at 0.1 < x < 0.58. At 0.1 < x < 0.45, the result is $$\bar{d}$$/$$\bar{u}$$ > 1. The result at 0.1 < x < 0.24 agrees with the E866 result. The result at x > 0.24, however, disagrees with the E866 result. The result at 0.45 < x < 0 the statistical errors. u¯ results extracted from experiments are used to investigate the validity of the theoretical models. The present experimental result provides the data points in wide x region. It is useful for understanding the proton structure in the light of QCD and effective hadron models. The present result has a practical application as well. Antiquark distributions are important as inputs to simulations of hadron reactions such as W± production in various experiments. The new knowledge on antiquark distributions helps to improve the precision of the simulations.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1346822
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-THESIS-2017-05
1517114
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Nagai, Kei. Recent Measurement of Flavor Asymmetry of Antiquarks in the Proton by Drell–Yan Experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1346822.
Nagai, Kei. Recent Measurement of Flavor Asymmetry of Antiquarks in the Proton by Drell–Yan Experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab. United States. doi:10.2172/1346822.
Nagai, Kei. Fri . "Recent Measurement of Flavor Asymmetry of Antiquarks in the Proton by Drell–Yan Experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab". United States. doi:10.2172/1346822. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346822.
@article{osti_1346822,
title = {Recent Measurement of Flavor Asymmetry of Antiquarks in the Proton by Drell–Yan Experiment SeaQuest at Fermilab},
author = {Nagai, Kei},
abstractNote = {A measurement of the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks ($\bar{d}$ and $\bar{u}$) in the proton is described in this thesis. The proton consists of three valence quarks, sea quarks, and gluons. Antiquarks in the proton are sea quarks. They are generated from the gluon splitting: g → q + $\bar{q}$. According to QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics), the gluon splitting is independent of quark flavor. It suggests that the amounts of $\bar{d}$ and $\bar{u}$ should be the same in the proton. However, the NMC experiment at CERN found that the amount of $\bar{d}$ is larger than that of $\bar{u}$ in the proton using the deep inelastic scattering in 1991. This result is obtained for $\bar{d}$ and $\bar{u}$ integrated over Bjorken x. Bjorken x is the fraction of the momentum of the parton to that of the proton. The NA51 experiment (x ~ 0.2) at CERN and E866/NuSea experiment (0.015 < x < 0.35) at Fermilab measured the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks ($\bar{d}$/$\bar{u}$) in the proton as a function of x using Drell–Yan process. The experiments reported that the flavor symmetry is broken over all measured x values. Understanding the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks in the proton is a challenge of the QCD. The theo- retical investigation from the first principle of QCD such as lattice QCD calculation is important. In addition, the QCD effective models and hadron models such as the meson cloud model can also be tested with the flavor asymmetry of antiquarks. From the experimental side, it is important to measure with higher accuracy and in a wider x range. The SeaQuest (E906) experiment measures $\bar{d}$/$\bar{u}$ at large x (0.15 < x < 0.45) accurately to understand its behavior. The SeaQuest experiment is a Drell–Yan experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). In the Drell–Yan process of proton-proton reaction, an antiquark in a proton and a quark in another proton annihilate and create a virtual photon, which then decays into a muon pair (q$\bar{q}$ → γ* → µ+µ-). The SeaQuest experiment uses a 120 GeV proton beam extracted from Fermilab’s Main Injector. The proton beam interacts with hydrogen and deuterium targets. The SeaQuest spectrometer detects the muon pairs from the Drell–Yan process. The $\bar{d}$/$\bar{u}$ ratio at 0.1 < x < 0.58 is extracted from the number of detected Drell–Yan muon pairs. After the detector construction, commissioning run and detector upgrade, the SeaQuest experiment started the physics data acquisition from 2013. We finished so far three periods of physics data acquisition. The fourth period is in progress. The detector construction, detector performance evaluation, data taking and data analysis for the flavor asymmetry of the antiquarks $\bar{d}$/$\bar{u}$ in the proton are my contribution to SeaQuest. The cross section ratio of Drell–Yan process in p- p and p-d reactions is obtained from dimuon yields. In the experiment with high beam intensity, it is important to control the tracking efficiency of charged particles through the magnetic spectrometer. The tracking efficiency depends on the chamber occupancy, and the appropriate method for the correction is important. The chamber occupancy is the number of hits in drift chambers. A new method of the correction for the tracking efficiency is developed based on the occupancy, and applied to the data. This method reflects the real response of the drift chambers. Therefore, the systematic error is well controlled by this method. The flavor asymmetry of antiquarks is obtained at 0.1 < x < 0.58. At 0.1 < x < 0.45, the result is $\bar{d}$/$\bar{u}$ > 1. The result at 0.1 < x < 0.24 agrees with the E866 result. The result at x > 0.24, however, disagrees with the E866 result. The result at 0.45 < x < 0 the statistical errors. u¯ results extracted from experiments are used to investigate the validity of the theoretical models. The present experimental result provides the data points in wide x region. It is useful for understanding the proton structure in the light of QCD and effective hadron models. The present result has a practical application as well. Antiquark distributions are important as inputs to simulations of hadron reactions such as W± production in various experiments. The new knowledge on antiquark distributions helps to improve the precision of the simulations.},
doi = {10.2172/1346822},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • A new measurement on the avor asymmetry between d and u in the proton is reported in this thesis. The proton contains a substantial number of antiquarks which arise from dynamical interactions of gluons such as gluon dissociation to a quark-antiquark pair, g ! q + q, and from non-perturbative processes as described by the pion-cloud model, for example. The antiquarks in the proton undertake an important role in determining the dynamic characteristics of the internal structure of the proton, although its distribution in the proton and its origin are not fully understood. Understanding sea quarks in hadron is anmore » important subject for QCD. The SeaQuest experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is a xed target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam extracted from the Fermilab Main Injector. One of the goals of the experiment is to measure the avor asymmetry between d quark and u quark in the proton as a function of the target Bjorken x using the Drell-Yan process in the p-p or p-d reactions. This process takes place in hadron-hadron collisions when a quark in one hadron in the beam and an antiquark in other hadron in the target annihilate into a virtual photon that decays into a lepton pair. The avor asymmetry between d and u quarks was found by deep-inelastic scattering experiment NMC at CERN. The E866/NuSea experiment at Fermilab obtained the avor asymmetry in the proton for 0:015 < x < 0:35 using the 800 GeV proton beam extracted from the Fermilab Tevatron. The result indicates the dominance of d; it is 70% larger than u at lower x. The SeaQuest experiment was planned to do a new precise measurement at higher x region. The lower energy beam (120 GeV) increases the Drell-Yan cross section and suppresses the background primarily arising from J/ decays. Therefore, SeaQuest will obtain more statistics in a shorter time than the E866 experiment. After detector construction, detector commissioning and accelerator upgrade, physics data taking started in 2013. The SeaQuest spectrometer is designed to detect dimuon from the Drell-Yan process. It consists of targets, two di-pole magnets, and four tracking detector groups. The third tracking detector group has two drift chambers. One was newly fabricated in Japan by the Japanese group in SeaQuest collaboration and was shipped to Fermilab. The other one was constructed by SeaQuest collaborator in Fermilab under the initiative of the Japanese group. I worked on the construction and installation of the detectors, data taking and data analysis in SeaQuest. I extracted the avor asymmetry as a function of Bjorken x using the SeaQuest data for the rst time. This thesis shows the results using a part of data taken in 2014 and 2015. The asymmetry was extracted for much wider Bjorken x region than the previous experiment. The measured Bjorken x range covers up to 0.58. The result shows that the ratio of d=u is always higher than 1 at 0:1 < x < 0:45, in contrast to the E866 result. For 0:45 < x < 0:58, the result shows that the ratio is close to unity. Predictions made by current PDF parameterizations are in agreement with the present result. Also, a prediction obtained by one of the non-perturbative models, pion-cloud model, is closer to the SeaQuest result than the E866 result. This result of d=u asymmetry at the wide Bjorken x region, 0:1 < x < 0:58, is very important information to understand the inner structure of the proton and the origin of the sea quarks in the proton.« less
  • A measurement of the atomic mass (A) dependence of p + A → µ+µ- + X Drell-Yan dimuons produced by 120 GeV protons is presented here. The data was taken by the SeaQuest experiment at Fermilab using a proton beam extracted from its Main Injector. Over 61,000 dimuon pairs were recorded with invariant mass 4.2 < Mγ* < 10 GeV and target parton momentum fraction 0.1 ≤ x 2 ≤ 0.5 for nuclear targets 1H, 2H, C, Fe, and W . The ratio of dimuon yields per nucleon (Y ) for heavy nuclei versus 2H, RDY = 2 2 Ymore » (A)/Y ( H) ≈ u¯(A)(x)/u¯( H)(x), is sensitive to modifications in the anti-quark sea distributions in nuclei for the case of proton-induced Drell-Yan. The data analyzed here and in the future of SeaQuest will provide tighter constraints on various models that attempt to define the anomalous behavior of nuclear modification as seen in deep inelastic lepton scattering, a phenomenon generally known as the EMC effect.« less
  • We present a measurement of low-mass lepton pair production in the central region ofmore » $$p\bar{p}$$ collisions with the Collider Detector at Fermilab at $$\sqrt{s}$$ = 1:8 TeV. We study dileptons in the invariant mass range 11 < $$M_{\mu}$$ < 150 GeV/$c^2$, within the rapidity range $$\mid y \mid$$ < 1. The differential cross-sections, $$M^3 d^2\sigma /dMdy$$, are measured separately for electron and muon pairs, and the results are compared in order to investigate a possible difference between the electron and muon channels in the previous CDF result[4]. This measurement has a much higher precision than the previous measurement due to increased luminosity: 85.37 $$pb^{-1}$$ (2651 events) in the electron channel and 83.68 $$pb^{-1}$$ (2062 events) in the muon channel« less
  • We present measurements of the inclusive Drell-Yan e + e - differential cross section (dσ/dM e+ e- and forward-backward asymmetry (A FB) as a function of the dielectron invariant mass over the range 70-400 GeV/c 2. The data sample consists of 177.3 pb -1 of pmore » $$\bar{p}$$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 detector. The results are consistent with the predictions of the standard model.« less
  • We study the behavior of charged particles produced in association with Drell-Yan lepton-pairs in the region of the Z-boson in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV. We use the direction of the Z-boson in each event to define 'toward', 'away', and 'transverse' regions. For Drell-Yan production (excluding the leptons) both the 'toward' and 'transverse' regions are very sensitive to the 'underlying event', which is defined as everything except the two hard scattered components. The data are corrected to the particle level and are then compared with several PYTHIA models (with multiple parton interactions) and HERWIG (without multiple parton interactions) at themore » particle level (i.e. generator level). The data are also compared with a previous analysis on the behavior of the 'underlying event' in high transverse momentum jet production. The goal is to produce data that can be used by the theorists to tune and improve the QCD Monte-Carlo models of the 'underlying event' that are used to simulate hadron-hadron collisions.« less