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Title: Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

Abstract

The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1346812
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68128
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: World Electric Vehicle Journal; Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; EV; electric vehicle; smart grid; charging; off-peak; renewable

Citation Formats

Zhang, Jiucai, and Markel, Tony. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Zhang, Jiucai, & Markel, Tony. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates. United States.
Zhang, Jiucai, and Markel, Tony. 2016. "Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1346812,
title = {Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates},
author = {Zhang, Jiucai and Markel, Tony},
abstractNote = {The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.},
doi = {},
journal = {World Electric Vehicle Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.
  • Utility expenditures on demand-side management (DSM) have risen dramatically in recent years. In turn, these expenditures often have led to significant rate increases, at once impairing utilities' competitive position and angering customers who did not benefit from the DSM measures. Although compelling reasons exist to reduce the utilities' cost of conservation, the question is How Financing programs may provide a practical way to reduce rate effects, allocate DSM costs equitably, and maintain high program-participation rates. Financing programs can take many forms. They can be structured as loans, leases, rentals, energy-efficient mortgages, or energy service contracts. Funds can be provided eithermore » by the utility or by third parties, such as banks and other consumer financing institutions. Financing programs can apply to the retrofit and replacement market as well as to the new construction market and have been offered to residential, commercial, and industrial customers. Well-designed financing programs will benefit participating customers because no up-front payments are required and monthly financing charges are less than bill savings. Such programs will ensure that appropriate price signals are sent for DSM, equitably allocate more DSM costs to participating customers, and reduce participants' cross-subsidization without sacrificing participation rates. Because financing programs increase customer contributions, rate impacts will decrease and the competitive position of utilities will improve.« less
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  • The primary photochemistry of the (M)L214H and (M)L214H/(L)E104V mutant bacterial reaction centers (RCs) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been investigated at room and cryogenic temperatures. In both mutants the native bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (BPh{sub L}) is replaced with a bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecule denoted by {Beta}; in the double mutant a hydrogen-bonding interaction of {Beta}-is removed. The initial stage of charge separation, formation of an intermediate P{sup +}I{sup -}, is slowed somewhat in both mutants but without a detectable loss in yield. However, the yield of the subsequent stage of charge separation, P{sup +}I{sup N} {yields} P{sup +}Q{sub A}{sup -}, is significantlymore » reduced due to the combination of slower electron transfer from I{sup -} to Q{sub A} and enhanced charge recombination of P{sup +}I{sup -} to the ground state. Models are considered in which P{sup +}{Beta}{sup -} and P{sup +}BCh1{sub L} are quantum-mechanically mixed or in thermal equilibrium. It is concluded that P{sup +}{Beta}{sup -} and P{sup +}BCh1{sub L} are very close in energy in the mutants and that P{sup +}BCh1{sub L} is very close in energy to the primary electron donor, P{sup *}, in both the mutant and wild-type RCs. 40 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less