skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

Abstract

Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles. [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1346811
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68121
Journal ID: ISSN 2032-6653
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: World Electric Vehicle Journal; Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; fuel cell; hydrogen; truck; simulation; HEV

Citation Formats

Kast, James, Marcinkoski, Jason, Vijayagopal, Ram, and Duran, Adam. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Kast, James, Marcinkoski, Jason, Vijayagopal, Ram, & Duran, Adam. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing. United States.
Kast, James, Marcinkoski, Jason, Vijayagopal, Ram, and Duran, Adam. 2016. "Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1346811,
title = {Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing},
author = {Kast, James and Marcinkoski, Jason and Vijayagopal, Ram and Duran, Adam},
abstractNote = {Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles. [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy.},
doi = {},
journal = {World Electric Vehicle Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulatedmore » for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.« less
  • In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4%more » reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.« less
  • Aggressive driving is a very important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand thismore » and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV and the other having a conventional powertrain, was chosen for both modeling and chassis dynamometer experimental comparisons. Results indicate that the regenerative braking limitations could be a main contributor to the greater HEV FE variation under the range of drive cycles considered. Finally, the complete body of results gives insight into the range of fuel use penalties that results from aggressive driving and why the variation can be larger on a percent basis for an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle, while the absolute fuel use penalty for aggressive driving is generally larger for conventional vehicles than HEVs.« less
  • An updated forecast of highway fuel consumption is presented using the revised input data for medium and heavy-duty trucks. The structure of the model is described. The input data are outlined and the calibration of the Highway Fuel Consumption model to actual statistics on highway travel and fuel demand is discussed. A Base Case projection of highway fuel consumption is presented and the results of this study are summarized.