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Title: Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles

Abstract

This project objective is to develop a high-temperature design upgrade for an existing primary surface heat exchanger so that the redesigned hardware is capable of operation in CO 2 at temperatures up to 1,510°F (821°C) and pressure differentials up to 130 psi (9 bar). The heat exchanger is proposed for use as a recuperator in an advanced low-pressure oxy-fuel Brayton cycle that is predicted to achieve over 50% thermodynamic efficiency, although the heat exchanger could also be used in other high-temperature, low-differential pressure cycles. This report describes the progress to date, which includes continuing work performed to select and test new candidate materials for the recuperator redesign, final mechanical and thermal performance analysis results of various redesign concepts, and the preliminary design of a test loop for the redesigned recuperator including a budgetary estimate for detailed test loop design, procurement, and test operation. A materials search was performed in order to investigate high-temperature properties of many candidate materials, including high-temperature strength and nickel content. These properties were used to rank the candidate materials, resulting in a reduced list of nine materials for corrosion testing. Multiple test rigs were considered and analyzed for short-term corrosion testing and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)more » was selected as the most cost-effective option for evaluating corrosion resistance of the candidate materials. In addition, tantalum, niobium, and chromium coatings were identified as potential options for increased corrosion resistance. The test results show that many materials exhibit relatively low weight gain rates, and that niobium and tantalum coatings may improve corrosion resistance for many materials, while chromium coatings appear to oxidize and debond quickly. Metallurgical analysis of alloys was also performed, showing evidence of intergranular attack in 282 that may cause long-term reliability problems in CO 2 service at these temperatures. However, long-term testing in a flowing environment is recommended in order to understand accurately the severity of the attack. Detailed economic modeling of the existing air cycle recuperator and CO 2 cycle recuperator options was also completed, including costs for material, fabrication, fuel, maintenance, and operation. The analysis results show that the increased capital cost for high-temperature materials may be offset by higher cycle efficiencies, decreasing the overall lifetime cost of the system. The economic analysis also examines costs associated with increased pressure drop and material changes for two redesign options. These results show that, even with slightly reduced performance and/or higher material costs, the lifetime cost per energy production may still be reduced by over 12%. The existing recuperator design information was provided by Solar Turbines, Inc. via several models, drawings, and design handoff meetings. Multiple fluid/thermal and structural models were created in order to analyze critical recuperator performance and mechanical strength in critical areas throughout the redesign process. These models were analyzed for a baseline condition (consistent with current Mercury 50 operation) for validation purposes. Results are presented for heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops, matching well with the existing operational data. Simulation of higher-temperature CO 2 conditions was also performed, showing a slight expected increase in both heat transfer and pressure drop. Mechanical analysis results for critical areas on the cross-flow and counter-flow sheets have also been obtained for air and CO 2 cases. These results show similar stresses in both cases but significantly reduced safety factors for the CO 2 case due to reduced yield and creep rupture strengths of alloy 625 at the higher temperatures. A concept brainstorm session and initial down-selection were completed in order to identify promising redesign options for further analysis. Detailed analysis of all promising redesign options was performed via finite element and computational fluid dynamic simulations in order to characterize mechanical and thermal-fluid performance of each option. These options included material change, various sheet thickness configurations, pitch and phasing of cross-flow and counter-flow sheets, and separator sheets. The analysis results have identified two viable redesign options that maintain existing safety margins optimally through a material change to Haynes 282 and (A) sheet thickness increases of 40% on the counter-flow sheet and 75% on the hot side cross-flow corrugation sheet or (B) addition of a separator sheet in the counter-flow section while maintaining the original counter-flow sheet thickness and increasing the cross-flow corrugation sheet thickness by 90% to account for the increase in cell height. While both options satisfy mechanical stress constraints, the separator sheet design has a higher part count, slightly reduced heat transfer, and slightly higher pressure drop than the first option and is not preferred. Finally, several test loop concepts have been developed for different full-scale and reduced-scale recuperator testing options. For each option, various loop components, such as heat exchangers, valves, heaters, and compressors, were evaluated in an effort to maximize utilization of existing resources. All concepts utilize an existing 3-MW CO 2 compressor, heater, and loop coolers, but the concepts vary by incorporating different amounts of new equipment for achieving various flow rates (all concepts operate at design pressure and temperature). The third concept achieves a 1 kg/s test without purchasing any costly equipment (coolers, heaters, blowers, etc.). Since the stacked cell design of the recuperator results in the same flow conditions at each core cell (even for a reduced-scale test). Thus, test loop Concept #3 was selected for the preliminary design. This loop design is detailed within the report, culminating in a budgetary estimate of $1,013,000.00 for the detailed design, construction, commissioning, and operation of a high-temperature recuperator test loop.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1346757
Report Number(s):
DOE-SWRI-FE24104
2105223561
DOE Contract Number:
FE0024104
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 03 NATURAL GAS; Recuperator; Heat Exchanger; Primary Surface; CO2; Power Cycle; High Temperature

Citation Formats

Allison, Tim, Beck, Griffin, Bennett, Jeffrey, Hoopes, Kevin, and Miller, Larry. Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1346757.
Allison, Tim, Beck, Griffin, Bennett, Jeffrey, Hoopes, Kevin, & Miller, Larry. Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles. United States. doi:10.2172/1346757.
Allison, Tim, Beck, Griffin, Bennett, Jeffrey, Hoopes, Kevin, and Miller, Larry. 2016. "Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles". United States. doi:10.2172/1346757. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346757.
@article{osti_1346757,
title = {Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles},
author = {Allison, Tim and Beck, Griffin and Bennett, Jeffrey and Hoopes, Kevin and Miller, Larry},
abstractNote = {This project objective is to develop a high-temperature design upgrade for an existing primary surface heat exchanger so that the redesigned hardware is capable of operation in CO2 at temperatures up to 1,510°F (821°C) and pressure differentials up to 130 psi (9 bar). The heat exchanger is proposed for use as a recuperator in an advanced low-pressure oxy-fuel Brayton cycle that is predicted to achieve over 50% thermodynamic efficiency, although the heat exchanger could also be used in other high-temperature, low-differential pressure cycles. This report describes the progress to date, which includes continuing work performed to select and test new candidate materials for the recuperator redesign, final mechanical and thermal performance analysis results of various redesign concepts, and the preliminary design of a test loop for the redesigned recuperator including a budgetary estimate for detailed test loop design, procurement, and test operation. A materials search was performed in order to investigate high-temperature properties of many candidate materials, including high-temperature strength and nickel content. These properties were used to rank the candidate materials, resulting in a reduced list of nine materials for corrosion testing. Multiple test rigs were considered and analyzed for short-term corrosion testing and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was selected as the most cost-effective option for evaluating corrosion resistance of the candidate materials. In addition, tantalum, niobium, and chromium coatings were identified as potential options for increased corrosion resistance. The test results show that many materials exhibit relatively low weight gain rates, and that niobium and tantalum coatings may improve corrosion resistance for many materials, while chromium coatings appear to oxidize and debond quickly. Metallurgical analysis of alloys was also performed, showing evidence of intergranular attack in 282 that may cause long-term reliability problems in CO2 service at these temperatures. However, long-term testing in a flowing environment is recommended in order to understand accurately the severity of the attack. Detailed economic modeling of the existing air cycle recuperator and CO2 cycle recuperator options was also completed, including costs for material, fabrication, fuel, maintenance, and operation. The analysis results show that the increased capital cost for high-temperature materials may be offset by higher cycle efficiencies, decreasing the overall lifetime cost of the system. The economic analysis also examines costs associated with increased pressure drop and material changes for two redesign options. These results show that, even with slightly reduced performance and/or higher material costs, the lifetime cost per energy production may still be reduced by over 12%. The existing recuperator design information was provided by Solar Turbines, Inc. via several models, drawings, and design handoff meetings. Multiple fluid/thermal and structural models were created in order to analyze critical recuperator performance and mechanical strength in critical areas throughout the redesign process. These models were analyzed for a baseline condition (consistent with current Mercury 50 operation) for validation purposes. Results are presented for heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops, matching well with the existing operational data. Simulation of higher-temperature CO2 conditions was also performed, showing a slight expected increase in both heat transfer and pressure drop. Mechanical analysis results for critical areas on the cross-flow and counter-flow sheets have also been obtained for air and CO2 cases. These results show similar stresses in both cases but significantly reduced safety factors for the CO2 case due to reduced yield and creep rupture strengths of alloy 625 at the higher temperatures. A concept brainstorm session and initial down-selection were completed in order to identify promising redesign options for further analysis. Detailed analysis of all promising redesign options was performed via finite element and computational fluid dynamic simulations in order to characterize mechanical and thermal-fluid performance of each option. These options included material change, various sheet thickness configurations, pitch and phasing of cross-flow and counter-flow sheets, and separator sheets. The analysis results have identified two viable redesign options that maintain existing safety margins optimally through a material change to Haynes 282 and (A) sheet thickness increases of 40% on the counter-flow sheet and 75% on the hot side cross-flow corrugation sheet or (B) addition of a separator sheet in the counter-flow section while maintaining the original counter-flow sheet thickness and increasing the cross-flow corrugation sheet thickness by 90% to account for the increase in cell height. While both options satisfy mechanical stress constraints, the separator sheet design has a higher part count, slightly reduced heat transfer, and slightly higher pressure drop than the first option and is not preferred. Finally, several test loop concepts have been developed for different full-scale and reduced-scale recuperator testing options. For each option, various loop components, such as heat exchangers, valves, heaters, and compressors, were evaluated in an effort to maximize utilization of existing resources. All concepts utilize an existing 3-MW CO2 compressor, heater, and loop coolers, but the concepts vary by incorporating different amounts of new equipment for achieving various flow rates (all concepts operate at design pressure and temperature). The third concept achieves a 1 kg/s test without purchasing any costly equipment (coolers, heaters, blowers, etc.). Since the stacked cell design of the recuperator results in the same flow conditions at each core cell (even for a reduced-scale test). Thus, test loop Concept #3 was selected for the preliminary design. This loop design is detailed within the report, culminating in a budgetary estimate of $1,013,000.00 for the detailed design, construction, commissioning, and operation of a high-temperature recuperator test loop.},
doi = {10.2172/1346757},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

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  • The annual progress report for the period of October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000 on DOE/UNM grant number DE-FG26-98FT40148 discusses the progress on both the theoretical analysis of advanced power cycles and the experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers. The previously developed computer program for the triple cycle, based on the air standard cycle assumption, was modified to include actual air composition (%77.48 N{sub 2}, %20.59 O{sub 2}, %1.9 H{sub 2}O, and %0.03 CO{sub 2}). The actual combustion products were used in exergy analysis of the triple cycle. The effect of steam injection into the combustion chambermore » on its irreversibility, and the irreversibility of the entire cycle, was evaluated. A more practical fuel inlet condition and a better position of the feedwater heater in the steam cycle were used in the modified cycle. The effect of pinch point and the temperature difference between the combustion products, as well as the steam in the heat recovery steam generator on irreversibility of the cycle were evaluated. Design, construction, and testing of the multitube horizontal falling film condenser facility were completed. Two effective heat transfer additives (2-ethyl-1-hexanol and alkyl amine) were identified and tested for steam condensation. The test results are included. The condenser was designed with twelve tubes in an array of three horizontals and four verticals, with a 2-inch horizontal and 1.5-inch vertical in-line pitch. By using effective additives, the condensation heat transfer rate can be augmented as much as 30%, as compared to a heat transfer that operated without additives under the same operating condition. When heat transfer additives function effectively, the condensate-droplets become more dispersed and have a smaller shape than those produced without additives. These droplets, unlike traditional turbulence, start at the top portion of the condenser tubes and cover most of the tubes. Such a flow behavior can be explained by the Marangoni effect (in terms of thermodynamic equilibrium) in connection with obtained surface tension data. In our experiments, we noted that the use of heat transfer additives such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol for steam condensation was highly effective.« less
  • The final report for the DOE/UNM grant number DE-FG26-98FT40148 discusses the accomplishments of both the theoretical analysis of advanced power cycles and experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers. This final report also includes the progress report for the third year (period of October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). Four new cycles were studied and two cycles were analyzed in detail based on the second law of thermodynamics. The first cycle uses a triple combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas), an intermediate cycle (Rankine/steam), and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia). This cycle can produce high efficiencymore » and reduces the irreversibility of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSC) of conventional combined power cycles. The effect of important system parameters on the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle under reasonable practical constraints was evaluated. The second cycle is a combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas) and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia) with integrated compressor inlet air cooling. This innovative cycle can produce high power and efficiency. This cycle is also analyzed and optimized based on the second the second law to obtain the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle. The results of the studies have been published in peer reviewed journals and ASME conference proceeding. Experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers was conducted to find effective additives for steam condensation. Four additives have been selected and tested in a horizontal tube steam condensation facility. It has been observed that heat transfer additives have been shown to be an effective way to increase the efficiency of conventional tube bundle condenser heat exchangers. This increased condensation rate is due to the creation of a disturbance in the liquid condensate surround the film. The heat transfer through such a film has increased due to the onset of Maranogni convection as well as the population of ''dropwise-like'' condensation increased. The results have been published in peer reviewed journals.« less
  • The P.I. and his research term successfully used the funds from the DOE Instrumentation grant entitled ''Development of Instrumentation for Surface, Interface and Thin Film Science at the Advanced Photon Source'' to design, build, test, and commission a customized surface science x-ray scattering/spectroscopy chamber. This instrumentation, which is presently in use at an APS x-ray undulator beam line operated by the DuPont-Northwestern-Dow Collaborative Access Team, is used for x-ray measurements of surface, interface, thin film, and nano-structures.
  • I. An adequate and conservative calculational method for evaluation of the heat generation distribution in the primary sodium system substructural areas was developed. The method was programed for the IBM 704 and the IBM 709. The results obtained from analysis of the gamma heat generation in the primary sodium pipe tunnels and in the intermediate heat exchanger cells are presented. Calculations are outlined, and gamma attenuation coefficients for concrete, sodium, and steel are given. II. Results obtained from analysis of the gamma heat generation in areas where the primary sodium system piping layout was changed from that of the previousmore » analysis are presented. Major changes in magnitude of the hot spot heat generation due to the changes are pointed out. (auth)« less