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Title: Examination of Hybrid Metal Coatings for Mitigation of Fission Product Release and Corrosion Protection of LWR SiC/SiC

Abstract

There is a need to increase the safety margins of current and future light water reactors (LWRs) due to the unfortunate events at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. Safety is crucial to restore public confidence in nuclear energy, acknowledged as an economical, high-­density energy solution to climate change. The development of accident-­tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts is crucial to this endeavor. The objective of ATF is to delay the consequences of accident progression, being inset in high temperature steam and maintaining high thermomechanical strength for radionuclide retention. The use of advanced SiCf-­SiC composite as a substitute for zircaloy-­based cladding is being considered. However, at normal operations, SiC is vulnerable to the reactor coolant and may corrode at an unacceptable rate. As a ceramic-­matrix composite material, it is likely to undergo microcracking operation, which may compromise the ability to contain gaseous fission products. A proposed solution to both issues is the application of mitigation coatings for use in normal operations. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), three coating technologies have been investigated with industry collaborators and vendors. These are electrochemical deposition, cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (PVD hereafter) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS). The objective of this document is to summarize these processingmore » technologies, the resultant as-­processed microstructures and properties of the coatings. In all processes, substrate constraint resulted in substantial tensile stresses within the coating layer. Each technology must mitigate this tensile stress. Electrochemical coatings use chromium as the coolant facing material, and are deposited on a nickel or carbon “bond coat”. This is economical but suffers microcracking in the chromium layer. PVD-­based coatings use chromium and titanium in both metallic form and nitrides, and can be deposited defense-­in-­depth as multilayers. This vapor method eliminated tensile stress during processing and coatings were up to ~30 μm thick without microcracking. VPS produced coatings based on Zircaloy-2, which has a proven reactor-­compatibility. The tensile stresses appearred to be partially mitigated by annealing. Analysis showed that VPS coatings required further optimizations to prevent adverse reactions with the substrate and need a minimum thickness of ~50 μm. In addition, development of coatings are constrained by neutronic depletion analysis, which clearly indicated enrichment as an issue if the coating is too thick. Based on the present work, the cathodic arc PVD technology was considered ready for the extensive testing and evaluation on cladding materials due to their ability to mitigate the excessive tensile stresses and the reasonable coating quality achieved. The VPS Zircaloy-­2 coating technology required additional development toward mitigation of issues related to the substrate reaction and porosity. In the future, PVD and VPS will have be scaled upon successful development and demonstration. Electrochemical coatings, which are proven scalability, currently require development to mitigate issues related to the tensile stress after deposition.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1346647
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/332
AF5810000; NEAF278
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS

Citation Formats

Ang, Caen K., Burns, Joseph R., Terrani, Kurt A., and Katoh, Yutai. Examination of Hybrid Metal Coatings for Mitigation of Fission Product Release and Corrosion Protection of LWR SiC/SiC. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1346647.
Ang, Caen K., Burns, Joseph R., Terrani, Kurt A., & Katoh, Yutai. Examination of Hybrid Metal Coatings for Mitigation of Fission Product Release and Corrosion Protection of LWR SiC/SiC. United States. doi:10.2172/1346647.
Ang, Caen K., Burns, Joseph R., Terrani, Kurt A., and Katoh, Yutai. Thu . "Examination of Hybrid Metal Coatings for Mitigation of Fission Product Release and Corrosion Protection of LWR SiC/SiC". United States. doi:10.2172/1346647. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346647.
@article{osti_1346647,
title = {Examination of Hybrid Metal Coatings for Mitigation of Fission Product Release and Corrosion Protection of LWR SiC/SiC},
author = {Ang, Caen K. and Burns, Joseph R. and Terrani, Kurt A. and Katoh, Yutai},
abstractNote = {There is a need to increase the safety margins of current and future light water reactors (LWRs) due to the unfortunate events at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. Safety is crucial to restore public confidence in nuclear energy, acknowledged as an economical, high-­density energy solution to climate change. The development of accident-­tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts is crucial to this endeavor. The objective of ATF is to delay the consequences of accident progression, being inset in high temperature steam and maintaining high thermomechanical strength for radionuclide retention. The use of advanced SiCf-­SiC composite as a substitute for zircaloy-­based cladding is being considered. However, at normal operations, SiC is vulnerable to the reactor coolant and may corrode at an unacceptable rate. As a ceramic-­matrix composite material, it is likely to undergo microcracking operation, which may compromise the ability to contain gaseous fission products. A proposed solution to both issues is the application of mitigation coatings for use in normal operations. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), three coating technologies have been investigated with industry collaborators and vendors. These are electrochemical deposition, cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (PVD hereafter) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS). The objective of this document is to summarize these processing technologies, the resultant as-­processed microstructures and properties of the coatings. In all processes, substrate constraint resulted in substantial tensile stresses within the coating layer. Each technology must mitigate this tensile stress. Electrochemical coatings use chromium as the coolant facing material, and are deposited on a nickel or carbon “bond coat”. This is economical but suffers microcracking in the chromium layer. PVD-­based coatings use chromium and titanium in both metallic form and nitrides, and can be deposited defense-­in-­depth as multilayers. This vapor method eliminated tensile stress during processing and coatings were up to ~30 μm thick without microcracking. VPS produced coatings based on Zircaloy-2, which has a proven reactor-­compatibility. The tensile stresses appearred to be partially mitigated by annealing. Analysis showed that VPS coatings required further optimizations to prevent adverse reactions with the substrate and need a minimum thickness of ~50 μm. In addition, development of coatings are constrained by neutronic depletion analysis, which clearly indicated enrichment as an issue if the coating is too thick. Based on the present work, the cathodic arc PVD technology was considered ready for the extensive testing and evaluation on cladding materials due to their ability to mitigate the excessive tensile stresses and the reasonable coating quality achieved. The VPS Zircaloy-­2 coating technology required additional development toward mitigation of issues related to the substrate reaction and porosity. In the future, PVD and VPS will have be scaled upon successful development and demonstration. Electrochemical coatings, which are proven scalability, currently require development to mitigate issues related to the tensile stress after deposition.},
doi = {10.2172/1346647},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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