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Title: Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint

Abstract

Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1346343
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5D00-67883
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: To be presented at the 2017 American Control Conference, 24-26 May 2017, Seattle, Washington
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; distributed energy resources; primary frequency response; virtual power plants; distribution systems

Citation Formats

Guggilam, Swaroop S., Dhople, Sairaj V., Zhao, Changhong, Dall'Anese, Emiliano, and Chen, Yu Christine. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470.
Guggilam, Swaroop S., Dhople, Sairaj V., Zhao, Changhong, Dall'Anese, Emiliano, & Chen, Yu Christine. Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint. United States. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470.
Guggilam, Swaroop S., Dhople, Sairaj V., Zhao, Changhong, Dall'Anese, Emiliano, and Chen, Yu Christine. Fri . "Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint". United States. doi:10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1346343.
@article{osti_1346343,
title = {Primary Frequency Response with Aggregated DERs: Preprint},
author = {Guggilam, Swaroop S. and Dhople, Sairaj V. and Zhao, Changhong and Dall'Anese, Emiliano and Chen, Yu Christine},
abstractNote = {Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droop slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.},
doi = {10.23919/ACC.2017.7963470},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • Power networks have to withstand a variety of disturbances that affect system frequency, and the problem is compounded with the increasing integration of intermittent renewable generation. Following a large-signal generation or load disturbance, system frequency is arrested leveraging primary frequency control provided by governor action in synchronous generators. In this work, we propose a framework for distributed energy resources (DERs) deployed in distribution networks to provide (supplemental) primary frequency response. Particularly, we demonstrate how power-frequency droop slopes for individual DERs can be designed so that the distribution feeder presents a guaranteed frequency-regulation characteristic at the feeder head. Furthermore, the droopmore » slopes are engineered such that injections of individual DERs conform to a well-defined fairness objective that does not penalize them for their location on the distribution feeder. Time-domain simulations for an illustrative network composed of a combined transmission network and distribution network with frequency-responsive DERs are provided to validate the approach.« less
  • The electrical frequency of an interconnection must be maintained very close to its nominal level at all times. Large frequency deviations can lead to unintended consequences such as load shedding, instability, and machine damage, among others. Turbine governors of conventional generating units provide primary frequency response (PFR) to ensure that frequency deviations are not significant duringlarge transient events. Increasing penetrations of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, and planned retirements of conventional thermal plants - and thus a reduction in the amount of suppliers with PFR capabilities - causes concerns about a decline of PFR and systemmore » inertia in North America. The capability of inverter-coupled wind generation technologies to contribute toPFR and inertia, if appropriately equipped with the necessary control features, can help alleviate concerns. However, these responses differ from those supplied by conventional generation and inertia, and it is not entirely understood how variable renewable generation will affect the system response at different penetration levels. This paper evaluates the impact of wind generation providing PFRand synthetic inertial response on a large interconnection.« less
  • We propose a framework to engineer synthetic-inertia and droop-control parameters for distributed energy resources (DERs) so that the system frequency in a network composed of DERs and synchronous generators conforms to prescribed transient and steady-state performance specifications. Our approach is grounded in a second-order lumped-parameter model that captures the dynamics of synchronous generators and frequency-responsive DERs endowed with inertial and droop control. A key feature of this reduced-order model is that its parameters can be related to those of the originating higher-order dynamical model. This allows one to systematically design the DER inertial and droop-control coefficients leveraging classical frequency-domain responsemore » characteristics of second-order systems. Time-domain simulations validate the accuracy of the model-reduction method and demonstrate how DER controllers can be designed to meet steady-state-regulation and transient-performance specifications.« less
  • Efficient and effective management of the electrical distribution system requires an integrated system approach for Distribution Management Systems (DMS), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), Distributed Energy Resources Management System (DERMS), and microgrids to work in harmony. This paper highlights some of the outcomes from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity (OE) project, including 1) Architecture of these integrated systems, and 2) Expanded functions of two example DMS applications, Volt-VAR optimization (VVO) and Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR), to accommodate DER. For these two example applications, the relevant DER Group Functions necessary to support communication between DMSmore » and Microgrid Controller (MC) in grid-tied mode are identified.« less
  • The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).