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Title: Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk

Abstract

Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS didmore » not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1346292
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124065
Journal ID: ISSN 0007-1145; applab
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
British Journal of Nutrition
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0007-1145
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Trimethylamine-N-oxide; Resistant starch:; Carbohydrate; Lipid; Insulin; Glucose; CVD

Citation Formats

Bergeron, Nathalie, Williams, Paul T., Lamendella, Regina, Faghihnia, Nastaran, Grube, Alyssa, Li, Xinmin, Wang, Zeneng, Knight, Rob, Jansson, Janet K., Hazen, Stanley L., and Krauss, Ronald M. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1017/S0007114516004165.
Bergeron, Nathalie, Williams, Paul T., Lamendella, Regina, Faghihnia, Nastaran, Grube, Alyssa, Li, Xinmin, Wang, Zeneng, Knight, Rob, Jansson, Janet K., Hazen, Stanley L., & Krauss, Ronald M. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk. United States. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004165
Bergeron, Nathalie, Williams, Paul T., Lamendella, Regina, Faghihnia, Nastaran, Grube, Alyssa, Li, Xinmin, Wang, Zeneng, Knight, Rob, Jansson, Janet K., Hazen, Stanley L., and Krauss, Ronald M. Tue . "Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk". United States. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004165.
@article{osti_1346292,
title = {Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk},
author = {Bergeron, Nathalie and Williams, Paul T. and Lamendella, Regina and Faghihnia, Nastaran and Grube, Alyssa and Li, Xinmin and Wang, Zeneng and Knight, Rob and Jansson, Janet K. and Hazen, Stanley L. and Krauss, Ronald M.},
abstractNote = {Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.},
doi = {10.1017/S0007114516004165},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1346292}, journal = {British Journal of Nutrition},
issn = {0007-1145},
number = 12,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}