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Title: Heme Oxygenase 2 Binds Myristate to Regulate Retrovirus Assembly and TLR4 Signaling

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1346240
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cell Host & Microbe; Journal Volume: 21; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Zhu, Yiping, Luo, Shukun, Sabo, Yosef, Wang, Cheng, Tong, Liang, and Goff, Stephen P. Heme Oxygenase 2 Binds Myristate to Regulate Retrovirus Assembly and TLR4 Signaling. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.01.002.
Zhu, Yiping, Luo, Shukun, Sabo, Yosef, Wang, Cheng, Tong, Liang, & Goff, Stephen P. Heme Oxygenase 2 Binds Myristate to Regulate Retrovirus Assembly and TLR4 Signaling. United States. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.01.002.
Zhu, Yiping, Luo, Shukun, Sabo, Yosef, Wang, Cheng, Tong, Liang, and Goff, Stephen P. Wed . "Heme Oxygenase 2 Binds Myristate to Regulate Retrovirus Assembly and TLR4 Signaling". United States. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2017.01.002.
@article{osti_1346240,
title = {Heme Oxygenase 2 Binds Myristate to Regulate Retrovirus Assembly and TLR4 Signaling},
author = {Zhu, Yiping and Luo, Shukun and Sabo, Yosef and Wang, Cheng and Tong, Liang and Goff, Stephen P.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.chom.2017.01.002},
journal = {Cell Host & Microbe},
number = 2,
volume = 21,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Heme oxygenase catalyzes the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, the precursor of the bile pigment bilirubin, and carbon monoxide, a putative neurotransmitter. The authors have employed polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the chromosome localization of the genes coding for the two known heme oxygenase isozymes. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), the inducible form, was localized to human chromosome 22q12, while heme oxygenase-2 (HMOX2), the constitutive form, was localized to chromosome 16p13.3. 14 refs., 3 figs.
  • Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes a key step in heme homeostasis: the O₂₋ and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent conversion of heme to biliverdin, Fe, and CO through a process in which the heme participates both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Mammals contain two isoforms of this enzyme, HO2 and HO1, which share the same α-helical fold forming the catalytic core and heme binding site, as well as a membrane spanning helix at their C-termini. However, unlike HO1, HO2 has an additional 30-residue N-terminus as well as two cysteine-proline sequences near the C-terminus that reside in heme regulatory motifs (HRMs).more » While the role of the additional N-terminal residues of HO2 is not yet understood, the HRMs have been proposed to reversibly form a thiol/disulfide redox switch that modulates the affinity of HO2 for ferric heme as a function of cellular redox poise. To further define the roles of the N- and C-terminal regions unique to HO2, we used multiple spectroscopic techniques to characterize these regions of the human HO2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments with HO2 demonstrate that, when the HRMs are in the oxidized state (HO2 O), both the extra N-terminal and the C-terminal HRM-containing regions are disordered. However, protein NMR experiments illustrate that, under reducing conditions, the C-terminal region gains some structure as the Cys residues in the HRMs undergo reduction (HO2 R) and, in experiments employing a diamagnetic protoporphyrin, suggest a redox-dependent interaction between the core and the HRM domains. Further, electron nuclear double resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies demonstrate that, upon reduction of the HRMs to the sulfhydryl form, a cysteine residue from the HRM region ligates to a ferric heme. Taken together with EPR measurements, which show the appearance of a new low-spin heme signal in reduced HO2, it appears that a cysteine residue(s) in the HRMs directly interacts with a second bound heme.« less
  • Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancermore » A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits HO-1 expression in cancer cells. • Metformin attenuates Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling. • Suppression of HO-1 by metformin is independent of AMPK. • HO-1 inhibition contributes to anti-proliferative effects of metformin.« less