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Title: Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities

Abstract

Processes occurring in a radio-frequency (rf) cavity, filled with high pressure gas and interacting with proton beams, have been studied via advanced numerical simulations. Simulations support the experimental program on the hydrogen gas-filled rf cavity in the Mucool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab, and broader research on the design of muon cooling devices. space, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code with atomic physics support, was used in simulation studies. Plasma dynamics in the rf cavity, including the process of neutral gas ionization by proton beams, plasma loading of the rf cavity, and atomic processes in plasma such as electron-ion and ion-ion recombination and electron attachment to dopant molecules, have been studied. Here, through comparison with experiments in the MTA, simulations quantified several uncertain values of plasma properties such as effective recombination rates and the attachment time of electrons to dopant molecules. Simulations have achieved very good agreement with experiments on plasma loading and related processes. Lastly, the experimentally validated code space is capable of predictive simulations of muon cooling devices.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Center
  3. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  4. Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (SC-21); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1346087
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1362161; OSTI ID: 1375038
Report Number(s):
BNL-113918-2017-JA; FERMILAB-PUB-17-321-AD
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888; PRABCJ; TRN: US1702637
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

Yu, Kwangmin, Samulyak, Roman, Yonehara, Katsuya, and Freemire, Ben. Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.032002.
Yu, Kwangmin, Samulyak, Roman, Yonehara, Katsuya, & Freemire, Ben. Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.032002.
Yu, Kwangmin, Samulyak, Roman, Yonehara, Katsuya, and Freemire, Ben. Tue . "Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.032002.
@article{osti_1346087,
title = {Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities},
author = {Yu, Kwangmin and Samulyak, Roman and Yonehara, Katsuya and Freemire, Ben},
abstractNote = {Processes occurring in a radio-frequency (rf) cavity, filled with high pressure gas and interacting with proton beams, have been studied via advanced numerical simulations. Simulations support the experimental program on the hydrogen gas-filled rf cavity in the Mucool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab, and broader research on the design of muon cooling devices. space, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code with atomic physics support, was used in simulation studies. Plasma dynamics in the rf cavity, including the process of neutral gas ionization by proton beams, plasma loading of the rf cavity, and atomic processes in plasma such as electron-ion and ion-ion recombination and electron attachment to dopant molecules, have been studied. Here, through comparison with experiments in the MTA, simulations quantified several uncertain values of plasma properties such as effective recombination rates and the attachment time of electrons to dopant molecules. Simulations have achieved very good agreement with experiments on plasma loading and related processes. Lastly, the experimentally validated code space is capable of predictive simulations of muon cooling devices.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.032002},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 3,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 07 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Mar 07 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.032002

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Processes occurring in a radio-frequency (rf) cavity, filled with high pressure gas and interacting with proton beams, have been studied via advanced numerical simulations. Simulations support the experimental program on the hydrogen gas-filled rf cavity in the Mucool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab, and broader research on the design of muon cooling devices. space, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code with atomic physics support, was used in simulation studies. Plasma dynamics in the rf cavity, including the process of neutral gas ionization by proton beams, plasma loading of the rf cavity, and atomic processes in plasma such as electron-ion andmore » ion-ion recombination and electron attachment to dopant molecules, have been studied. Here, through comparison with experiments in the MTA, simulations quantified several uncertain values of plasma properties such as effective recombination rates and the attachment time of electrons to dopant molecules. Simulations have achieved very good agreement with experiments on plasma loading and related processes. Lastly, the experimentally validated code space is capable of predictive simulations of muon cooling devices.« less
  • Processes occurring in a radio-frequency (rf) cavity, filled with high pressure gas and interacting with proton beams, have been studied via advanced numerical simulations. Simulations support the experimental program on the hydrogen gas-filled rf cavity in the Mucool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab, and broader research on the design of muon cooling devices. space, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code with atomic physics support, was used in simulation studies. Plasma dynamics in the rf cavity, including the process of neutral gas ionization by proton beams, plasma loading of the rf cavity, and atomic processes in plasma such as electron-ion andmore » ion-ion recombination and electron attachment to dopant molecules, have been studied. Here, through comparison with experiments in the MTA, simulations quantified several uncertain values of plasma properties such as effective recombination rates and the attachment time of electrons to dopant molecules. Simulations have achieved very good agreement with experiments on plasma loading and related processes. Lastly, the experimentally validated code space is capable of predictive simulations of muon cooling devices.« less
  • Physical processes occurring in an intense electron beam with a virtual cathode in an interaction space filled with neutral gas are studied in a two-dimensional model. A mathematical model is proposed for investigating complicated self-consistent processes of neutral gas ionization by the beam electrons and the dynamics of an electron beam and heavy positive ions in the common space charge field with allowance for the two-dimensional motion of charged particles. Three characteristic dynamic regimes of the system are revealed: complete suppression of oscillations of the virtual cathode as a result of neutralizing its space charge by positive ions; the pulsedmore » generation regime, in which the ions dynamics repeatedly suppresses and restores the virtual cathode oscillations; and the continuous generation regime with an anomalously high level of noisy oscillations.« less
  • The results of computer simulations of the electron-optical system of an electron gun with a plasma emitter are presented. The simulations are performed using the KOBRA3-INP, XOOPIC, and ANSYS codes. The results describe the electron beam formation and transport. The electron trajectories are analyzed. The mechanisms of gas influence on the energy inhomogeneity of the beam and its current in the regions of beam primary formation, acceleration, and transport are described. Recommendations for optimizing the electron-optical system with a plasma emitter are presented.
  • RF breakdown has been observed in high gradient RF cavities within large magnet fields. Recent experiments and analyses also show that RF breakdown is suppressed in gas-filled RF cavities, but that large beam loading effects could occur. The front end of a neutrino factory or muon collider requires high gradient RF within magnetic fields and gas-filled RF cavities could avoid breakdown. Beam loading caused by secondary electrons produced within the gas by beam ionization can be very large. The effect at Front End parameters and its mitigation are discussed.