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Title: Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter

  1. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Type / Phase:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Betti, R. Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Betti, R. Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter. United States.
Betti, R. Tue . "Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter". United States. doi:.
title = {Fusion Science Center for Extreme States of Matter},
author = {Betti, R.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017}

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  • No abstract prepared.
  • Low temperature plasma science (LTPS) is a field on the verge of an intellectual revolution. Partially ionized plasmas (often referred to as gas discharges) are used for an enormous range of practical applications, from light sources and lasers to surgery and making computer chips, among many others. The commercial and technical value of low temperature plasmas (LTPs) is well established. Modern society would simply be less advanced in the absence of LTPs. Much of this benefit has resulted from empirical development. As the technology becomes more complex and addresses new fields, such as energy and biotechnology, empiricism rapidly becomes inadequatemore » to advance the state of the art. The focus of this report is that which is less well understood about LTPs - namely, that LTPS is a field rich in intellectually exciting scientific challenges and that addressing these challenges will result in even greater societal benefit by placing the development of plasma technologies on a solid science foundation. LTPs are unique environments in many ways. Their nonequilibrium and chemically active behavior deviate strongly from fully ionized plasmas, such as those found in magnetically confined fusion or high energy density plasmas. LTPs are strongly affected by the presence of neutral species-chemistry adds enormous complexity to the plasma environment. A weakly to partially ionized gas is often characterized by strong nonequilibrium in the velocity and energy distributions of its neutral and charged constituents. In nonequilibrium LTP, electrons are generally hot (many to tens of electron volts), whereas ions and neutrals are cool to warm (room temperature to a few tenths of an electron volt). Ions and neutrals in thermal LTP can approach or exceed an electron volt in temperature. At the same time, ions may be accelerated across thin sheath boundary layers to impact surfaces, with impact energies ranging up to thousands of electron volts. These moderately energetic electrons can efficiently create reactive radical fragments and vibrationally and electronically excited species from collisions with neutral molecules. These chemically active species can produce unique structures in the gas phase and on surfaces, structures that cannot be produced in other ways, at least not in an economically meaningful way. Photons generated by electron impact excited species in the plasma can interact more or less strongly with other species in the plasma or with the plasma boundaries, or they can escape from the plasma. The presence of boundaries around the plasma creates strong gradients where plasma properties change dramatically. It is in these boundary regions where externally generated electromagnetic radiation interacts most strongly with the plasma, often producing unique responses. And it is at bounding surfaces where complex plasma-surface interactions occur. The intellectual challenges associated with LTPS center on several themes, and these are discussed in the chapters that follow this overview. These themes are plasma-surface interactions; kinetic, nonlinear properties of LTP; plasmas in multiphase media; scaling laws for LTP; and crosscutting themes: diagnostics, modeling, and fundamental data.« less
  • The article explains how it is possible for deuterons separated by macroscopic distances to interact in a nuclear fashion through the formation of a Bose Bloch Condensate (BBC) within a solid. Under suitable conditions, the formation of a BBC may lead to nuclear fusion and a variety of heretofore unobserved nuclear processes. The application of these ideas is used to explain the anomalous heating of Pd through the electrolysis of D{sub 2}O and LiOD and conclude that only a small concentration of BBC deutrons is required. Various experiments associated with condensed matter fusion are suggested that may provide a testmore » of our theory.« less
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  • Contents: Optoelectronic materials and components; Miniaturized lasers and thin film modulators; Potassium tantalate niobate thin films for integrated optics applications; Energy transfer in sensitized rare earth lasers; Microwave surface resistance of superconducting alloys; Chemical synthesis using high temperature lithium vapor species.