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Title: Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

Abstract

This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran throughmore » 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO 2 (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). One of the largest sources of BC globally is biomass burning (BB). (Akagi et al., 2011; Andreae and Merlet, 2001; Bond et al., 2013; Bond et al., 2004; Reid et al., 2005b): a source that is likely to increase in the Western U.S. due to climate change (Dennison et al., 2014; Abatzoglon and Williams, 2016; Westerling et al., 2006). Given the likely increased role of BB aerosol in atmospheric forcing, we need to improve our understanding of the physical and optical properties of aged BB aerosol. During the SP2 deployment period at MBO we observed seven BB events, all of which originated from the Gap Fire in Northern California, which burned 33,867 acres in the Klamath National Forest (https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/4997/). Heavy smoke plumes from this fire were transported to MBO from 8/29/2016 to 8/31/2016. We calculated back-trajectories using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, version 4 (Draxler, 1999; Draxler and Hess, 1997, 1998; Stein et al., 2015) to confirm transport from the fire locations to MBO. We identified the fire locations using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived active fire counts (Justice et al., 2002). Transport time for all of the BB events ranged from 8 to 32 hours.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1345377
Report Number(s):
DOE/SC-ARM-17-005
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-7601830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Black carbon; brown carbon; aersols; wildfires; Mt. Bachelor Observatory; aethalometer; single-particle soot photometer; biomass burning; nephelometer; moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer

Citation Formats

Jaffe, Dan A., Sedlacek, Arthur, and Laing, James R. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1345377.
Jaffe, Dan A., Sedlacek, Arthur, & Laing, James R. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1345377.
Jaffe, Dan A., Sedlacek, Arthur, and Laing, James R. Wed . "Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1345377. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1345377.
@article{osti_1345377,
title = {Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report},
author = {Jaffe, Dan A. and Sedlacek, Arthur and Laing, James R.},
abstractNote = {This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO2 (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). One of the largest sources of BC globally is biomass burning (BB). (Akagi et al., 2011; Andreae and Merlet, 2001; Bond et al., 2013; Bond et al., 2004; Reid et al., 2005b): a source that is likely to increase in the Western U.S. due to climate change (Dennison et al., 2014; Abatzoglon and Williams, 2016; Westerling et al., 2006). Given the likely increased role of BB aerosol in atmospheric forcing, we need to improve our understanding of the physical and optical properties of aged BB aerosol. During the SP2 deployment period at MBO we observed seven BB events, all of which originated from the Gap Fire in Northern California, which burned 33,867 acres in the Klamath National Forest (https://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/4997/). Heavy smoke plumes from this fire were transported to MBO from 8/29/2016 to 8/31/2016. We calculated back-trajectories using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, version 4 (Draxler, 1999; Draxler and Hess, 1997, 1998; Stein et al., 2015) to confirm transport from the fire locations to MBO. We identified the fire locations using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived active fire counts (Justice et al., 2002). Transport time for all of the BB events ranged from 8 to 32 hours.},
doi = {10.2172/1345377},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Interpreting the temporal relationship between the scattering and incandescence signals recorded by the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sedlacek et al. (2012) reported that 60% of the refractory black carbon containing particles in a plume containing biomass burning tracers exhibited non-core-shell structure. Because the relationship between the rBC (refractory black carbon) incandescence and the scattering signals had not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature, and to further evaluate the initial interpretation by Sedlacek et al., a series of experiments was undertaken to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as themore » light-absorbing substance to characterize this signal relationship. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermochemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources. This work was communicated in a 2015 publication (Sedlacek et al. 2015)« less
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  • During the summer of 2015, a field campaign took place to help characterize off-the-shelf portable solar-viewing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instruments (EM27/SUN). These instruments retrieve greenhouse gas (GHG) abundances from direct solar spectra. A focus of this campaign was to test possible dependence on different atmospheric conditions. Along with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, experiments were conducted in Pasadena, California; Park Falls, Wisconsin; and the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), California. These locations are home to instruments in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). TCCONmore » measurements were used as standards for the portable (EM27/SUN) measurements. Comparisons between the two types of instruments are crucial in the attempt to use the portable instruments to broaden the capabilities of GHG measurements for monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon in the atmosphere. This campaign was aimed at testing the response of the portable FTS to different atmospheric conditions both local and regional. Measurements made at ARM SGP provided data in an agricultural environment with a relatively clean atmosphere with respect to pollution. Due to the homogeneity of the region surrounding Lamont, Oklahoma, portable FTS measurements were less effected by large changes in column GHG abundances from air mass movement between regions. These conditions aided in characterizing potential artificial solar zenith angle dependence of the retrievals. Data collected under atmospheric conditions at ARM SGP also provide for the analysis of cloud interference on solar spectra. In situ measurements were also made using a Picarro isotopic methane analyzer to determine surface-level in situ GHG concentrations and possible influences due to local agriculture and nearby towns. Data collected in this campaign have been presented via a poster at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting in 2015 and is included in a paper that is in preparation to be submitted to Atmospheric Measurement Techniques in 2016.« less