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Title: Experimental Evaluation of Dual-Opposed Jet Mixer Pump Performance for Slurry Mixing

Abstract

Million-gallon double-shell tanks at Hanford are used to store transuranic, high-level, and low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist of a large volume of salt-laden solution covering a smaller volume of settled sludge primarily containing metal hydroxides. These wastes will be retrieved and processed into immobile waste forms suitable for permanent disposal. Retrieval is an important step in implementing these disposal scenarios. The retrieval concept evaluated is to use submerged dual-nozzle jet mixer pumps with horizontally oriented nozzles located near the tank floor that produce horizontal jets of fluid to mobilize the settled solids. The mixer pumps are oscillated through 180 about a vertical axis so the high velocity fluid jets sweep across the floor of the tank. After the solids are mobilized, the pumps will continue to operate at a reduced flow rate producing lower velocity jets sufficient to maintain the particles in a uniform suspension (concentration uniformity). Several types of waste and tank configurations exist at Hanford. The jet mixer pump systems and operating conditions required to mobilize sludge and maintain slurry uniformity will be a function of the waste type and tank configuration. The focus of this work was to conduct a 1/12-scale experiment to develop an analyticalmore » model to relate slurry uniformity to tank and mixer pump configurations, operating conditions, and sludge properties. This experimental study evaluated concentration uniformity in a 1/12-scale experiment varying the Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and gravitational settling parameter (Gs) space. Simulant physical properties were chosen to obtain the required Re and Gs where Re and Gs were varied by adjusting the kinematic viscosity and mean particle diameter, respectively. Test conditions were achieved by scaling the jet nozzle exit velocity in a 75-in. diameter tank using a mock-up of a centrally located dual-opposed jet mixer pump located just above the tank floor. Concentration measurements at sampling locations throughout the tank were used to assess the degree of uniformity achieved during each test. Concentration data was obtained using a real time in-situ ultrasonic attenuation probe and post-test analysis of discrete batch samples. The undissolved solids concentration at these locations was analyzed to determine whether the tank contents were uniform (≤ ±10% variation about mean) or nonuniform (> ±10% variation about mean) in concentration. Concentration inhomogeneity was modeled as a function of dimensionless parameters. The parameters that best describe the maximum solids volume fraction that can be suspended were found to be 1) the Fr based on nozzle average discharge velocity and tank contents level and 2) the dimensionless particle size based on nozzle diameter. The dependence on the jet Re does not appear to be statistically significant.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1344659
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-116470
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ASME 2016 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting (FEDSM2016), July 10-14, 2016, Washington, DC, II2:V002T10A002; FEDSM2016-7749
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
mixing; jet mixer pump; slurry; Newtonian; scaled testing; correlation

Citation Formats

Bamberger, Judith A., and Enderlin, Carl W. Experimental Evaluation of Dual-Opposed Jet Mixer Pump Performance for Slurry Mixing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1115/FEDSM2016-7749.
Bamberger, Judith A., & Enderlin, Carl W. Experimental Evaluation of Dual-Opposed Jet Mixer Pump Performance for Slurry Mixing. United States. doi:10.1115/FEDSM2016-7749.
Bamberger, Judith A., and Enderlin, Carl W. Sun . "Experimental Evaluation of Dual-Opposed Jet Mixer Pump Performance for Slurry Mixing". United States. doi:10.1115/FEDSM2016-7749.
@article{osti_1344659,
title = {Experimental Evaluation of Dual-Opposed Jet Mixer Pump Performance for Slurry Mixing},
author = {Bamberger, Judith A. and Enderlin, Carl W.},
abstractNote = {Million-gallon double-shell tanks at Hanford are used to store transuranic, high-level, and low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist of a large volume of salt-laden solution covering a smaller volume of settled sludge primarily containing metal hydroxides. These wastes will be retrieved and processed into immobile waste forms suitable for permanent disposal. Retrieval is an important step in implementing these disposal scenarios. The retrieval concept evaluated is to use submerged dual-nozzle jet mixer pumps with horizontally oriented nozzles located near the tank floor that produce horizontal jets of fluid to mobilize the settled solids. The mixer pumps are oscillated through 180 about a vertical axis so the high velocity fluid jets sweep across the floor of the tank. After the solids are mobilized, the pumps will continue to operate at a reduced flow rate producing lower velocity jets sufficient to maintain the particles in a uniform suspension (concentration uniformity). Several types of waste and tank configurations exist at Hanford. The jet mixer pump systems and operating conditions required to mobilize sludge and maintain slurry uniformity will be a function of the waste type and tank configuration. The focus of this work was to conduct a 1/12-scale experiment to develop an analytical model to relate slurry uniformity to tank and mixer pump configurations, operating conditions, and sludge properties. This experimental study evaluated concentration uniformity in a 1/12-scale experiment varying the Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and gravitational settling parameter (Gs) space. Simulant physical properties were chosen to obtain the required Re and Gs where Re and Gs were varied by adjusting the kinematic viscosity and mean particle diameter, respectively. Test conditions were achieved by scaling the jet nozzle exit velocity in a 75-in. diameter tank using a mock-up of a centrally located dual-opposed jet mixer pump located just above the tank floor. Concentration measurements at sampling locations throughout the tank were used to assess the degree of uniformity achieved during each test. Concentration data was obtained using a real time in-situ ultrasonic attenuation probe and post-test analysis of discrete batch samples. The undissolved solids concentration at these locations was analyzed to determine whether the tank contents were uniform (≤ ±10% variation about mean) or nonuniform (> ±10% variation about mean) in concentration. Concentration inhomogeneity was modeled as a function of dimensionless parameters. The parameters that best describe the maximum solids volume fraction that can be suspended were found to be 1) the Fr based on nozzle average discharge velocity and tank contents level and 2) the dimensionless particle size based on nozzle diameter. The dependence on the jet Re does not appear to be statistically significant.},
doi = {10.1115/FEDSM2016-7749},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Sun Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the mixing performance of pulse jet mixers. A pulse-jet mixing system involves an array of pulse tubes with nozzles directed toward the vessel floor inside the mixing vessel. Fluid is expelled from the pulse tubes during the drive portion of the PJM cycle. Fluid refills into the pulse tubes during the refill portion of the PJM cycle. This cyclical process can be used to mix slurries. Concentration profiles as a function of location and elevation in the tank were taken during the pulse jet mixer cycle at several radial locations within themore » mixing vessel: at the center, near the wall, and half-way between the center and the wall. The data are being examined to determine how the time during the cycle affects the solids suspension and settling. Examples will be presented for several particle types, concentrations, and pulse-jet operating conditions.« less
  • The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs in the solids-containing vessels in the WTP. The program focused mainly on non-cohesive solids behavior. Specifically, the program addressed the effectiveness of the mixing systems to suspend settled solids off the vessel bottom, and distribute the solids vertically. Experiments weremore » conducted at three scales using various particulate simulants. A range of solids loadings and operational parameters were evaluated, including jet velocity, pulse volume, and duty cycle. In place of actual PJMs, the tests used direct injection from tubes with suction at the top of the tank fluid. This gave better control over the discharge duration and duty cycle and simplified the facility requirements. The mixing system configurations represented in testing varied from 4 to 12 PJMs with various jet nozzle sizes. In this way the results collected could be applied to the broad range of WTP vessels with varying geometrical configurations and planned operating conditions. Data for “just-suspended velocity”, solids cloud height, and solids concentration vertical profile were collected, analyzed, and correlated. The correlations were successfully benchmarked against previous large-scale test results, then applied to the WTP vessels using reasonable assumptions of anticipated waste properties to evaluate adequacy of the existing mixing system designs.« less
  • Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests weremore » conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.« less
  • Experiments were performed to support understanding mixing of radioactive waste stored in Tank 241-SY-101 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. These experiments were conducted at 1/12 scale and modeled the tank and proposed mixing pump. The tests investigated solids mobilization and suspension for jets rotated in fixed increments about the tank centerline. Flow visualization tests showed that the supernatant layer was generally too cloudy for effective visualization. Observations of the settled solids interface during a start-up transient showed that the mixing action was always confined within the slurry layer. A 4.57-m/s (15-ft/s) jet velocity was not capable of clearingmore » settled sludge off the tank floor all the way to the tank wall and produced a stratified flow field at steady state; 7.62-m/s (25-ft/s) and higher jet velocities always circulated solids to the tank surface. During the operating parameter tests with jets rotated at fixed increments, the slurry interface rose more slowly than for the fixed location jets. Solids suspension was more effective for the rotated jets than for the fixed location jets. Percent solids suspended with a 7.62-m/s (25-ft/s) jet was 66 to 72% in the high viscosity simulant and 59 to 67% in the low viscosity simulant. Percent solids suspended with a 15.2 m/s (50-ft/s) jet was 74 to 81% in the low viscosity simulant. A 7.62 m/s (25-ft/s) jet velocity was adequate to clear settled solids from the tank floor to the tank wall for both the low and high viscosity simulant.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to confirm the adequacy of a single mixer pump to fully mix the wastes that will be stored in Tanks 241-AP-102 and -104. These Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) will be used as staging tanks to receive low-activity wastes from other Hanford storage tanks and, in turn, will supply the wastes to private waste vitrification facilities for eventual solidification. The TEMPEST computer code was applied to Tanks AP-102 and -104 to simulate waste mixing generated by the 60-ft/s rotating jets and to determine the effectiveness of the single rotating pump to mix the waste. TEMPESTmore » simulates flow and mass/heat transport and chemical reactions (equilibrium and kinetic reactions) coupled together. Section 2 describes the pump jet mixing conditions the authors evaluated, the modeling cases, and their parameters. Section 3 reports model applications and assessment results. The summary and conclusions are presented in Section 4, and cited references are listed in Section 5.« less