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Title: Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells

Abstract

Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1344451
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-68006
Journal ID: ISSN 1938-6737
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ECS Transactions (Online); Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 24
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; energy storage; electrochemical-thermal mechanical response; MECT; lithium-ion battery

Citation Formats

Zhang, C., Santhanagopalan, S., Sprague, M. A., and Pesaran, A. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst.
Zhang, C., Santhanagopalan, S., Sprague, M. A., & Pesaran, A. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells. United States. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst.
Zhang, C., Santhanagopalan, S., Sprague, M. A., and Pesaran, A. 2016. "Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells". United States. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst.
@article{osti_1344451,
title = {Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells},
author = {Zhang, C. and Santhanagopalan, S. and Sprague, M. A. and Pesaran, A.},
abstractNote = {Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.},
doi = {10.1149/07224.0009ecst},
journal = {ECS Transactions (Online)},
number = 24,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenizationmore » model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.« less
  • The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describemore » the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.« less
  • Models capture the force response for single-cell and cell-string levels to within 15%-20% accuracy and predict the location for the origin of failure based on the deformation data from the experiments. At the module level, there is some discrepancy due to poor mechanical characterization of the packaging material between the cells. The thermal response (location and value of maximum temperature) agrees qualitatively with experimental data. In general, the X-plane results agree with model predictions to within 20% (pending faulty thermocouples, etc.); the Z-plane results show a bigger variability both between the models and test-results, as well as among multiple repeatsmore » of the tests. The models are able to capture the timing and sequence in voltage drop observed in the multi-cell experiments; the shapes of the current and temperature profiles need more work to better characterize propagation. The cells within packaging experience about 60% less force under identical impact test conditions, so the packaging on the test articles is robust. However, under slow-crush simulations, the maximum deformation of the cell strings with packaging is about twice that of cell strings without packaging.« less
  • Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode theory coupled with various transport and reaction mechanisms with an appropriate discretization or approximation for the solid phase diffusion within the electrode particle. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need for simulating solid-phase diffusion in the second radial dimension r within the particle. It increases the complexity of the model as well as the computation time/cost to a great extent. This is Particularly true for the inclusion of pressure induced diffusion inside particles experiencing volume change. A computationally efficient representation for solid-phase diffusion is discussed inmore » this paper. The operating condition has a significant effect on the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of various approximations for the solid-phase transport governed by pressure induced diffusion. This paper introduces efficient methods for solid phase reformulation - (1) parabolic profile approach and (2) a mixed order finite difference method for approximating/representing solid-phase concentration variations within the active materials of porous electrodes for macroscopic models for lithium-ion batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.« less