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Title: CO 2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process

Abstract

The objective of this project was to develop a novel, low-cost CO 2 capture process from pre-combustion gas streams. The bench-scale work was conducted at the SRI International. A 0.15-MWe integrated pilot plant was constructed and operated for over 700 hours at the National Carbon Capture Center, Wilsonville, AL. The AC-ABC (ammonium carbonate-ammonium bicarbonate) process for capture of CO 2 and H 2S from the pre-combustion gas stream offers many advantages over Selexol-based technology. The process relies on the simple chemistry of the NH 3-CO 2-H 2O-H 2S system and on the ability of the aqueous ammoniated solution to absorb CO 2 at near ambient temperatures and to release it as a high-purity, high-pressure gas at a moderately elevated regeneration temperature. It is estimated the increase in cost of electricity (COE) with the AC-ABC process will be ~ 30%, and the cost of CO 2 captured is projected to be less than $27/metric ton of CO 2 while meeting 90% CO 2 capture goal. The Bechtel Pressure Swing Claus (BPSC) is a complementary technology offered by Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc. BPSC is a high-pressure, sub-dew-point Claus process that allows for nearly complete removal of H 2S from a gasmore » stream. It operates at gasifier pressures and moderate temperatures and does not affect CO 2 content. When coupled with AC-ABC, the combined technologies allow a nearly pure CO 2 stream to be captured at high pressure, something which Selexol and other solvent-based technologies cannot achieve.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
Contributing Org.:
Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc.; EIG Inc., National Carbon Capture Center
OSTI Identifier:
1344095
Report Number(s):
DOE-SR-00896
DOE Contract Number:
FE0000896
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; Syngas; CO2 Capture; IGCC; Pre combustion; H2S capture

Citation Formats

Nagar, Anoop, McLaughlin, Elisabeth, Hornbostel, Marc, Krishnan, Gopala, and Jayaweera, Indira. CO2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1344095.
Nagar, Anoop, McLaughlin, Elisabeth, Hornbostel, Marc, Krishnan, Gopala, & Jayaweera, Indira. CO2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process. United States. doi:10.2172/1344095.
Nagar, Anoop, McLaughlin, Elisabeth, Hornbostel, Marc, Krishnan, Gopala, and Jayaweera, Indira. Thu . "CO2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process". United States. doi:10.2172/1344095. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1344095.
@article{osti_1344095,
title = {CO2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process},
author = {Nagar, Anoop and McLaughlin, Elisabeth and Hornbostel, Marc and Krishnan, Gopala and Jayaweera, Indira},
abstractNote = {The objective of this project was to develop a novel, low-cost CO2 capture process from pre-combustion gas streams. The bench-scale work was conducted at the SRI International. A 0.15-MWe integrated pilot plant was constructed and operated for over 700 hours at the National Carbon Capture Center, Wilsonville, AL. The AC-ABC (ammonium carbonate-ammonium bicarbonate) process for capture of CO2 and H2S from the pre-combustion gas stream offers many advantages over Selexol-based technology. The process relies on the simple chemistry of the NH3-CO2-H2O-H2S system and on the ability of the aqueous ammoniated solution to absorb CO2 at near ambient temperatures and to release it as a high-purity, high-pressure gas at a moderately elevated regeneration temperature. It is estimated the increase in cost of electricity (COE) with the AC-ABC process will be ~ 30%, and the cost of CO2 captured is projected to be less than $27/metric ton of CO2 while meeting 90% CO2 capture goal. The Bechtel Pressure Swing Claus (BPSC) is a complementary technology offered by Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc. BPSC is a high-pressure, sub-dew-point Claus process that allows for nearly complete removal of H2S from a gas stream. It operates at gasifier pressures and moderate temperatures and does not affect CO2 content. When coupled with AC-ABC, the combined technologies allow a nearly pure CO2 stream to be captured at high pressure, something which Selexol and other solvent-based technologies cannot achieve.},
doi = {10.2172/1344095},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 16 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Feb 16 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf 2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO 2 capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO 2, H 2, Hmore » 2S, CO, and CH 4 in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters (Δ ij and l ij) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO 2 solubilities in [hmim][Tf 2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO 2 capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO 2 up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO 2 capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO 2 was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H 2 was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf 2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO 2 capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.« less
  • This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).more » Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. 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For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and low-cost CO{sub 2} compression equipment, an incremental LCOE of $33/MWh at 90% capture can be achieved (40% lower than the advanced MEA case). Even with lower cost compression, it appears unlikely that a membrane process using high feed compression (>5 bar) can be competitive with amine absorption, due to the capital cost and energy consumption of this equipment. Similarly, low vacuum pressure (<0.2 bar) cannot be used due to poor efficiency and high cost of this equipment. High membrane permeance is important to reduce the capital cost and footprint of the membrane unit. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is less important because it is too costly to generate a pressure ratio where high selectivity can be useful. A potential cost ?sweet spot? exists for use of membrane-based technology, if 50-70% CO{sub 2} capture is acceptable. There is a minimum in the cost of CO{sub 2} avoided/ton that membranes can deliver at 60% CO{sub 2} capture, which is 20% lower than the cost at 90% capture. Membranes operating with no feed compression are best suited for lower capture rates. Currently, it appears that the biggest hurdle to use of membranes for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is compression equipment cost. An alternative approach is to use sweep membranes in parallel with another CO{sub 2} capture technology that does not require feed compression or vacuum equipment. Hybrid designs that utilize sweep membranes for selective CO{sub 2} recycle show potential to significantly reduce the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation.« less
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  • The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO 2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO 2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on Selexol TM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO 2 above the dew point ofmore » the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO 2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO 2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on Selexol TM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO 2 above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with Selexol TM to capture CO 2. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO 2 capture process and confirmed the technical feasibility in bench-scale experiments. In these tests, we did not observe any CO breakthrough both during adsorption and desorption steps indicating that there is complete conversion of CO to CO 2 and H 2. The overall CO conversions above 90 percent were observed. The sorbent achieved a total CO 2 loading of 7.82 percent wt. of which 5.68 percent is from conversion of CO into CO 2. The results of the system analysis suggest that the TDA combined shift and high temperature PSA-based Warm Gas Clean-up technology can make a substantial improvement in the IGCC plant thermal performance for a plant designed to achieve near zero emissions (including greater than 90 percent carbon capture). The capital expenses are also expected to be lower than those of Selexol. The higher net plant efficiency and lower capital and operating costs result in substantial reduction in the COE for the IGCC plant equipped with the TDA combined shift and high temperature PSA-based carbon capture system.« less