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Title: Pore-scale supercritical CO 2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions

Abstract

Abstract: Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO 2. In this study, pore-scale scCO 2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO 2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO 2 (dsCO 2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH, were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO 2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO 2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO 2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore whenmore » a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes – scCO 2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO 2 at the pore scale (10-100 µm) observed after scCO 2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints – are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO 2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase interfaces. This finding is applicable for the behavior of dissolution at pore, core, and field scales when water-filled pores and pore clusters of varying size are surrounded by scCO 2 at narrow pore throats.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1344032
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-122892
Journal ID: ISSN 0309-1708; 49072; 48255; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Advances in Water Resources; Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Chang, Chun, Zhou, Quanlin, Oostrom, Mart, Kneafsey, Timothy J., and Mehta, Hardeep. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.12.003.
Chang, Chun, Zhou, Quanlin, Oostrom, Mart, Kneafsey, Timothy J., & Mehta, Hardeep. Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions. United States. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.12.003.
Chang, Chun, Zhou, Quanlin, Oostrom, Mart, Kneafsey, Timothy J., and Mehta, Hardeep. Wed . "Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions". United States. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.12.003.
@article{osti_1344032,
title = {Pore-scale supercritical CO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions},
author = {Chang, Chun and Zhou, Quanlin and Oostrom, Mart and Kneafsey, Timothy J. and Mehta, Hardeep},
abstractNote = {Abstract: Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2. In this study, pore-scale scCO2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO2 (dsCO2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH, were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore when a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes – scCO2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO2 at the pore scale (10-100 µm) observed after scCO2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints – are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase interfaces. This finding is applicable for the behavior of dissolution at pore, core, and field scales when water-filled pores and pore clusters of varying size are surrounded by scCO2 at narrow pore throats.},
doi = {10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.12.003},
journal = {Advances in Water Resources},
number = C,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Recently, both core- and pore-scale imbibition experiments have shown non-equilibrium dissolution of supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2) and a prolonged depletion of residual scCO 2. In this paper, pore-scale scCO 2 dissolution and mass transfer under drainage conditions were investigated using a two-dimensional heterogeneous micromodel and a novel fluorescent water dye with a sensitive pH range between 3.7 and 6.5. Drainage experiments were conducted at 9 MPa and 40 °C by injecting scCO 2 into the sandstone-analogue pore network initially saturated by water without dissolved CO 2 (dsCO 2). During the experiments, time-lapse images of dye intensity, reflecting water pH,more » were obtained. These images show non-uniform pH in individual pores and pore clusters, with average pH levels gradually decreasing with time. Further analysis on selected pores and pore clusters shows that (1) rate-limited mass transfer prevails with slowly decreasing pH over time when the scCO 2-water interface area is low with respect to the volume of water-filled pores and pore clusters, (2) fast scCO 2 dissolution and phase equilibrium occurs when scCO 2 bubbles invade into water-filled pores, significantly enhancing the area-to-volume ratio, and (3) a transition from rate-limited to diffusion-limited mass transfer occurs in a single pore when a medium area-to-volume ratio is prevalent. The analysis also shows that two fundamental processes – scCO 2 dissolution at phase interfaces and diffusion of dsCO 2 at the pore scale (10–100 µm) observed after scCO 2 bubble invasion into water-filled pores without pore throat constraints – are relatively fast. The overall slow dissolution of scCO 2 in the millimeter-scale micromodel can be attributed to the small area-to-volume ratios that represent pore-throat configurations and characteristics of phase interfaces. Finally, this finding is applicable for the behavior of dissolution at pore, core, and field scales when water-filled pores and pore clusters of varying size are surrounded by scCO 2 at narrow pore throats.« less
  • In modeling of geological carbon storage, dissolution of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is often assumed to be instantaneous with equilibrium phase partitioning. In contrast, recent core-scale imbibition experiments have shown a prolonged depletion of residual scCO2 by dissolution, implying a non-equilibrium mechanism. In this study, eight pore-scale scCO2 dissolution experiments in a 2D heterogeneous, sandstone-analogue micromodel were conducted at supercritical conditions (9 MPa and 40 °C). The micromodel was first saturated with deionized (DI) water and drained by injecting scCO2 to establish a stable scCO2 saturation. DI water was then injected at constant flow rates after scCO2 drainage was completed. Highmore » resolution time-lapse images of scCO2 and water distributions were obtained during imbibition and dissolution, aided by a scCO2-soluble fluorescent dye introduced with scCO2 during drainage. These images were used to estimate scCO2 saturations and scCO2 depletion rates. Experimental results show that (1) a time-independent, varying number of water-flow channels are created during imbibition and later dominant dissolution by the random nature of water flow at the micromodel inlet, and (2) a time-dependent number of water-flow channels are created by coupled imbibition and dissolution following completion of dominant imbibition. The number of water-flow paths, constant or transient in nature, greatly affects the overall depletion rate of scCO2 by dissolution. The average mass fraction of dissolved CO2 (dsCO2) in water effluent varies from 0.38% to 2.72% of CO2 solubility, indicating non-equilibrium scCO2 dissolution in the millimeter-scale pore network. In general, the transient depletion rate decreases as trapped, discontinuous scCO2 bubbles and clusters within water-flow paths dissolve, then remains low with dissolution of large bypassed scCO2 clusters at their interfaces with longitudinal water flow, and finally increases with coupled transverse water flow and enhanced dissolution of large scCO2 clusters. The three stages of scCO2 depletion, common to experiments with time-independent water-flow paths, are revealed by zoom-in image analysis of individual scCO2 bubbles and clusters. The measured relative permeability of water, affected by scCO2 dissolution and bi-modal permeability, shows a non-monotonic dependence on saturation. The results for experiments with different injection rates imply that the non-equilibrium nature of scCO2 dissolution becomes less important when water flow is relatively low and the time scale for dissolution is large, and more pronounced when heterogeneity is strong.« less