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Title: Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

Abstract

The aim of this study is to compare radioxenon beta–gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Finally, our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). National Security Directorate. Radiation Detection and Nuclear Sciences Group
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; Dept. of State (DOS) (United States). Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance (AVC); Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
OSTI Identifier:
1343943
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-120191
Journal ID: ISSN 0236-5731; PII: 5174; TRN: US1700985
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 311; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0236-5731
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
38 RADIATION CHEMISTRY, RADIOCHEMISTRY, AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY; Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; International monitoring system; Radioxenon; Beta-gamma spectra; Algorithms; Nuclear explosion monitoring

Citation Formats

Deshmukh, Nikhil, Prinke, Amanda, Miller, Brian, and McIntyre, Justin. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s10967-017-5174-5.
Deshmukh, Nikhil, Prinke, Amanda, Miller, Brian, & McIntyre, Justin. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra. United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-017-5174-5.
Deshmukh, Nikhil, Prinke, Amanda, Miller, Brian, and McIntyre, Justin. Fri . "Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra". United States. doi:10.1007/s10967-017-5174-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1343943.
@article{osti_1343943,
title = {Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra},
author = {Deshmukh, Nikhil and Prinke, Amanda and Miller, Brian and McIntyre, Justin},
abstractNote = {The aim of this study is to compare radioxenon beta–gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Finally, our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used.},
doi = {10.1007/s10967-017-5174-5},
journal = {Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry},
number = 3,
volume = 311,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 13 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Jan 13 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • The aim of this paper is to compare radioxenon beta-gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the Minimum Detectable Counts (MDC) for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newermore » algorithms can be better than the currently used ones.« less
  • Abstract Detection and measurement of atmospheric radioxenon is an important component of international monitoring systems for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring stations separate xenon from air and perform isotopic analysis of the radioxenon. In one such radioxenon measurement scheme, the isotopes of interest are identified by coincident spectroscopy of electrons and photons in a bg coincidence spectrometer (BGCS). The b spectrometer is a plastic scintillator, produced as a cylindrical cell containing the separated xenon sample. This cell is surrounded by the NaI(Tl) g spectrometer. We report here the development of a calibration process for the BGCS suitable for use in remotemore » sampling systems. This procedure is based upon g-ray Compton scattering, resulting in a true coincident signal in both detectors, generation of electrons over a wide energy range that matches the energy distribution of electrons from radioxenon decay, and a relative insensitivity to source location. Besides gain calibration, this procedure determines the resolution of the b detector as a function of energy.« less
  • The Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), can collect and detect several radioxenon isotopes and is used to monitor underground nuclear explosions. The ARSA is very sensitive to 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe, and 135Xe (< 1 mBq/SCM) due to the compact high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector it uses. For this reason, it is an excellent treaty monitoring system and it can be used as an environmental sampling device as well. Field testing of the system has shown it to be both robust and reliable, but the nuclear detector requires a detailed photomultiplier tube (PMT) gain matchingmore » regime that is difficult to implement in a field environment. This complexity is a problem from a maintenance and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) standpoint and efforts to reduce these issues have led to development of a simplified beta-gamma coincident detector. The new design reduces the number of PMT’s and, therefore, the complexity of the calibration needed in comparison to the old design. New scintillation materials were investigated and a comparison of three different gamma sensitive well detectors has been completed. In addition, a new plastic-scintillator gas cell was designed that utilized a cell was constructed as well as a new method of forming the scintillator gas cell. The new simplified detector system has compared favorably with the original ARSA design in spectral resolution and efficiency and is significantly easier to set up and calibrate. The new materials and configuration allow the resulting beta-gamma coincendence detector to maintain the overall performance of the ARSA type beta-gamma detector, while simplifying the design.« less
  • Abstract Several hundred simulated radioxenon beta-gamma data files were developed to assist in evaluating the performance and results from radioxenon concentration calculation analysis at the International Data Center (IDC) and other National Data Centers (NDC). PNNL developed a Beta-Gamma Simulator (BGSim) that incorporated GEANT-modeled data sets from radioxenon decay chains, as well as functionality to use nuclear detector-acquired data sets to create new beta-gamma spectra with varying amounts of background, 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe, 135Xe, and 222Rn and its decay products. The program has been implemented on a web-based applications platform and allows the user to create very specific data setsmore » that incorporate most of the operational parameters for the current beta-gamma systems deployed in the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the On-site Inspection (OSI) equipment. After an initial beta-gamma simulations program was developed, additional uses began to be identified for the program output: training sets of two-dimensional spectra for data analysts at the IDC and other NDC, spectra for exercises such as the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) held in Jordan at the Dead Sea, and testing new analysis methods and algorithms« less
  • Purpose: Patient-specific QA procedures for IMRT and VMAT are traditionally performed by comparing TPS calculations with measured single point values and plane dose distributions by means of gamma analysis. New QA devices permit us to calculate 3D dose distributions on patient anatomy as redundant secondary check and reconstruct it from measurements taken with 2D and 3D detector arrays. 3D dose calculations allow us to perform DVH-based comparisons with clinical relevance, as well as 3D gamma analysis. One of these systems (Compass, IBA Dosimetry) combines traditional 2D with new anatomical-based 3D gamma analysis. This work shows the ability of this systemmore » by comparing 2D and 3D gamma analysis in pre-treatment QA for several VMAT prostate plans. Methods: Compass is capable of calculating dose as secondary check from DICOM TPS data and reconstructing it from measurements taken by a 2D ion chamber array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Both 2D and 3D gamma tests are available to compare calculated and reconstructed dose in Compass with TPS RT Dose. Results: 15 VMAT prostate plans have been measured with Compass. Dose is reconstructed with Compass for these plans. 2D gamma comparisons can be done for any plane from dose matrix. Mean gamma passing rates for isocenter planes (axial, coronal, sagittal) are (99.7±0.2)%, (99.9±0.1)%, (99.9±0.1)% for reconstructed dose planes. 3D mean gamma passing rates are (98.5±1.7)% for PTVs, (99.1±1.5)% for rectum, (100.0±0.0)% for bladder, (99.6±0.7)% for femoral heads and (98.1±4.1)% for penile bulb. Conclusion: Compass is a powerful tool to perform a complete pre-treatment QA analysis, from 2D techniques to 3D DVH-based techniques with clinical relevance. All reported values for VMAT prostate plans are in good agreement with TPS values. This system permits us to ensure the accuracy in the delivery of VMAT treatments completing a full patient-specific QA program.« less