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Title: Frequency Responsive Load


The Energy Commission is currently soliciting ideas and stakeholder input for the 2018 – 2020 EPIC Triennial Investment Plan. For those that would like to submit an idea for consideration in the 2018-2020 EPIC Triennial Plan, we ask that you complete the form below. Submittals are due by 5:00 p.m. on February 10, 2017.

  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Top, P. L. Frequency Responsive Load. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1343857.
Top, P. L. Frequency Responsive Load. United States. doi:10.2172/1343857.
Top, P. L. Fri . "Frequency Responsive Load". United States. doi:10.2172/1343857.
title = {Frequency Responsive Load},
author = {Top, P. L.},
abstractNote = {The Energy Commission is currently soliciting ideas and stakeholder input for the 2018 – 2020 EPIC Triennial Investment Plan. For those that would like to submit an idea for consideration in the 2018-2020 EPIC Triennial Plan, we ask that you complete the form below. Submittals are due by 5:00 p.m. on February 10, 2017.},
doi = {10.2172/1343857},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}

Technical Report:

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  • By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market andmore » to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.« less
  • Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response andmore » on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.« less
  • Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC).more » The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.« less
  • Current power grid operation predominantly relies on scheduling and regulating generation resources to supply loads and balance load changes. Due to the inherent intermittency of renewable energy, more flexible and fast ramping capacity is required to compensate for the uncertainty and variability introduced by renewable energy resources. With the advancement of information technologies, power system end-use loads are becoming more agile and can participate in provision of balancing energy and other grid services. The use of demand response can greatly reduce the required generation reserve in a clean and environmentally friendly way. In this report, a new frequency responsive loadmore » (FRL) controller was proposed based on the GFA controller, which can respond to both over and under-frequency events. A supervisory control was introduced to coordinate the autonomous response from FRLs in order to overcome the issues of excessive system response due to high penetration of FRLs. The effectiveness of the proposed FRL controller was demonstrated by large-scale simulation studies on the WECC system. Specifically, the FRLs were deployed in the WECC system at different penetration levels to analyze the performance of the proposed strategy both with and without supervisory level control. While both methods have their own advantages, the case without supervisory control could lead to system-wide instability depending on the size of the contingency and the number of FRLs deployed in the system. In addition, the voltage impacts of this controller on distribution system were also carefully investigated. Finally, a preliminary measurement and verification approach was also developed.« less
  • Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviationmore » is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators« less