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Title: Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE ( PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

Abstract

The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE ( PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that,more » although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. Lastly, the data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [5];  [5];  [2];  [6];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [7];  [4];  [2];  [1]
  1. Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States); U.S. Dept. of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. John Innes Centre, Norwich (United Kingdom)
  3. USDA, Peoria, IL (United States)
  4. U.S. Dept. of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  5. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  6. U.S. Dept. of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)
  7. U.S. Dept. of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1343287
Grant/Contract Number:  
FC02-07ER64494
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Experimental Botany
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 66; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-0957
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; bioenergy; Fusarium; ferulic acid; grass; herbivory; lignin; phenylpropanoid; saccharification; tyrosine ammonia lyase; ultraviolet light

Citation Formats

Cass, Cynthia L., Peraldi, Antoine, Dowd, Patrick F., Mottiar, Yaseen, Santoro, Nicholas, Karlen, Steven D., Bukhman, Yury V., Foster, Cliff E., Thrower, Nick, Bruno, Laura C., Moskvin, Oleg V., Johnson, Eric T., Willhoit, Megan E., Phutane, Megha, Ralph, John, Mansfield, Shawn D., Nicholson, Paul, and Sedbrook, John C. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1093/jxb/erv269.
Cass, Cynthia L., Peraldi, Antoine, Dowd, Patrick F., Mottiar, Yaseen, Santoro, Nicholas, Karlen, Steven D., Bukhman, Yury V., Foster, Cliff E., Thrower, Nick, Bruno, Laura C., Moskvin, Oleg V., Johnson, Eric T., Willhoit, Megan E., Phutane, Megha, Ralph, John, Mansfield, Shawn D., Nicholson, Paul, & Sedbrook, John C. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium. United States. doi:10.1093/jxb/erv269.
Cass, Cynthia L., Peraldi, Antoine, Dowd, Patrick F., Mottiar, Yaseen, Santoro, Nicholas, Karlen, Steven D., Bukhman, Yury V., Foster, Cliff E., Thrower, Nick, Bruno, Laura C., Moskvin, Oleg V., Johnson, Eric T., Willhoit, Megan E., Phutane, Megha, Ralph, John, Mansfield, Shawn D., Nicholson, Paul, and Sedbrook, John C. Fri . "Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium". United States. doi:10.1093/jxb/erv269. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1343287.
@article{osti_1343287,
title = {Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium},
author = {Cass, Cynthia L. and Peraldi, Antoine and Dowd, Patrick F. and Mottiar, Yaseen and Santoro, Nicholas and Karlen, Steven D. and Bukhman, Yury V. and Foster, Cliff E. and Thrower, Nick and Bruno, Laura C. and Moskvin, Oleg V. and Johnson, Eric T. and Willhoit, Megan E. and Phutane, Megha and Ralph, John and Mansfield, Shawn D. and Nicholson, Paul and Sedbrook, John C.},
abstractNote = {The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. Lastly, the data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops.},
doi = {10.1093/jxb/erv269},
journal = {Journal of Experimental Botany},
issn = {0022-0957},
number = 14,
volume = 66,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}

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Cited by: 26 works
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    • Garcia, Carla; Rodrigues, João Domingos; Mazaro, Sergio Miguel
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