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Title: Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars

Abstract

Bell’s theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell’s inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this “freedom of choice” was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional “quantum random number generators” was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here in this paper we report on a new experimental test of Bell’s inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as “cosmic setting generators.” In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon’s color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31σ and ≳11.93σ violations of Bell’s inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8 × 10 -13 and ≲4.0 × 10 -33, respectively,more » thereby pushing back by ~600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
  1. Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1342816
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1425643
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012567
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Handsteiner, Johannes, Friedman, Andrew S., Rauch, Dominik, Gallicchio, Jason, Liu, Bo, Hosp, Hannes, Kofler, Johannes, Bricher, David, Fink, Matthias, Leung, Calvin, Mark, Anthony, Nguyen, Hien T., Sanders, Isabella, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Wengerowsky, Sören, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, and Zeilinger, Anton. Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401.
Handsteiner, Johannes, Friedman, Andrew S., Rauch, Dominik, Gallicchio, Jason, Liu, Bo, Hosp, Hannes, Kofler, Johannes, Bricher, David, Fink, Matthias, Leung, Calvin, Mark, Anthony, Nguyen, Hien T., Sanders, Isabella, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Wengerowsky, Sören, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, & Zeilinger, Anton. Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401.
Handsteiner, Johannes, Friedman, Andrew S., Rauch, Dominik, Gallicchio, Jason, Liu, Bo, Hosp, Hannes, Kofler, Johannes, Bricher, David, Fink, Matthias, Leung, Calvin, Mark, Anthony, Nguyen, Hien T., Sanders, Isabella, Steinlechner, Fabian, Ursin, Rupert, Wengerowsky, Sören, Guth, Alan H., Kaiser, David I., Scheidl, Thomas, and Zeilinger, Anton. Tue . "Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401.
@article{osti_1342816,
title = {Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars},
author = {Handsteiner, Johannes and Friedman, Andrew S. and Rauch, Dominik and Gallicchio, Jason and Liu, Bo and Hosp, Hannes and Kofler, Johannes and Bricher, David and Fink, Matthias and Leung, Calvin and Mark, Anthony and Nguyen, Hien T. and Sanders, Isabella and Steinlechner, Fabian and Ursin, Rupert and Wengerowsky, Sören and Guth, Alan H. and Kaiser, David I. and Scheidl, Thomas and Zeilinger, Anton},
abstractNote = {Bell’s theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell’s inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this “freedom of choice” was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional “quantum random number generators” was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here in this paper we report on a new experimental test of Bell’s inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as “cosmic setting generators.” In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon’s color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31σ and ≳11.93σ violations of Bell’s inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8 × 10-13 and ≲4.0 × 10-33, respectively, thereby pushing back by ~600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 118,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401

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Cited by: 12 works
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