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Title: Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves

Abstract

In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1342536
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1393068
Report Number(s):
LBNL-1006082
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X; ir:1006082
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Rapp, Vi H., Caubel, Julien J., Wilson, Daniel L., and Gadgil, Ashok J. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01333.
Rapp, Vi H., Caubel, Julien J., Wilson, Daniel L., & Gadgil, Ashok J. Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01333.
Rapp, Vi H., Caubel, Julien J., Wilson, Daniel L., and Gadgil, Ashok J. Mon . "Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01333. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342536.
@article{osti_1342536,
title = {Reducing ultrafine particle emissions using air injection in wood-burning cookstoves},
author = {Rapp, Vi H. and Caubel, Julien J. and Wilson, Daniel L. and Gadgil, Ashok J.},
abstractNote = {In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size-distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. Finally, the results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.est.6b01333},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 15,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
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  • © 2016 American Chemical Society. In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this researchmore » explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.« less
  • Four wood-burning stoves, three airtight and one non-airtight, were operated in a single-floor 236-m/sup 3/ residence and tested for indoor pollutant emissions. Results showed the airtight stoves emitted minor amounts of carbon monoxide and respirable suspended particles during door-opening operations, while the nonairtight stove continuously injected pollutants indoors under certain operating conditions. During airtight stove operation, carbon monoxide levels reached a maximum of 4 ppm, while average total suspended particulate levels ranged from 24 to 71 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. During normal nonairtight stove operation, carbon monoxide levels reached a maximum of 8 ppm, while total suspended particulate levels ranged from 30more » to 650/sup +/g/m/sup 3/. Outdoor carbon monoxide levels were 1.1 ppm or less, and outdoor particulate levels ranged from 7 to 31 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo(a)pyrene, were measured in the collected particulate samples, and the results are reported. Source strengths for carbon monoxide, total suspended particles, and five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported. 26 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.« less
  • Factors influencing the effectiveness of exhaust port air injection in oxidizing the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in engine exhaust gas have been investigated in order to establish guidelines for the engineering of vehicle emission control systems. Single-cylinder engine and vehicle studies have demonstrated that the temperature, composition, and residence time of the exhaust gas-air mixture are basic factors determining both the effectiveness of air injection and the type of oxidation process which occurs in the exhaust system. Both luminous and nonluminous oxidation have been observed. These basic factors are affected by such variables as: engine spark timing and air-fuel ratio,more » insulation and size of exhaust manifolds, injection air temperature and airflow rate, and the warmup characteristics of the air injection system. The warmup characteristics can be influenced particularly by spark timing and exhaust manifold design. By optimizing the operating and design variables, it has been possible to greatly enhance the effectiveness of air injection in reducing hydrocarbon emissions. For example, with an experimental system, a composite hydrocarbon emission of 27 ppM has been measured on a vehicle tested in accordance with the California Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission Test Procedure. On the other hand, for the same system, the carbon monoxide emission was 0.76%. Increasing the effectiveness of air injection in reducing carbon monoxide emission has proved to be most difficult. Although these experimental systems may not be amenable to product engineering, they do illustrate the potential of air injection for reducing exhaust hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.« less
  • The main objective of this communication is to demonstrate the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the direct measurement of burning velocity in a constant-volume combustion chamber. PIV was used to measure the unburned gas velocity field ahead of the flame front. By means of simultaneous measurement of local flame propagation speed with a pair of ionization probes, the laminar burning velocity of propane-air mixtures initially at atmospheric pressure P = 101.3 kPa and temperature T = 298 K was also measured for equivalence ratios in the range 0.7 {le} {phi} {le} 1.4. The measured values are compared withmore » other published results.« less
  • Aldehyde emissions from wood-burning fireplaces were measured. Total aldehydes ranged from 0.6 to 2.3 g/kg of wood burned based on tests with cedar, jack pine, red oak, and ash. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and p-tolualdehyde were the major aldehydes emitted with formaldehyde comprising 21-42% of the total. Aldehyde and particle emissions were inversely correlated with burn rate and may also be related to wood type. On the basis of our measurements, nationwide aldehyde emissions from residental wood burning were estimated to be between 14 and 54 Gg/year. This value is comparable to both power plant and automobile aldehyde emission sources. It ismore » likely that residental wood burning is a major source of primary aldehydes during the winter. 20 references.« less