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Title: Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas

Abstract

Post-combustion CO 2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCCmore » technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to August 2016 at a selected process condition to evaluate process performance and solvent stability over a longer period similar to how the process would operate as a continuously running large-scale PCC plant. The pilot plant integrated a number of unique features of the Linde-BASF technology aimed at lowering overall energy consumption and capital costs. During the overall test period including startup, parametric testing and long-duration testing, the pilot plant was operated for a total of 6,764 hours out of which testing with flue gas was performed for 4,109 hours. The pilot plant testing demonstrated all of the performance targets including CO 2 capture rate exceeding 90%, CO 2 purity exceeding 99.9 mol% (dry), flue gas processing capacity up to 15,500 lbs/hr (equivalent to 1.5 MWe capacity slipstream), regeneration energy as low as 2.7 GJ/tonne CO 2, and regenerator operating pressure up to 3.4 bara. Excellent solvent stability performance data was measured and verified by Linde and BASF during both test campaigns. In addition to process data, significant operational learnings were gained from pilot tests that will contribute greatly to the commercial success of PCC. Based on a thorough techno-economic assessment (TEA) of the Linde-BASF PCC process integrated with a 550 MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant, the net efficiency of the integrated power plant with CO 2 capture is increased from 28.4% with the DOE/NETL Case 12 reference to 30.9% with the Linde-BASF PCC plant previously presented utilizing the BASF OASE® blue solvent [Ref. 4], and is further increased to 31.4% using a Linde-BASF PCC plant with BASF OASE® blue solvent and an advanced stripper interstage heater (SIH) configuration. The Linde-BASF PCC plant incorporating the BASF OASE® blue solvent also results in significantly lower overall capital costs, thereby reducing the cost of electricity (COE) and cost of CO 2 captured from $147.25/MWh and $56.49/MT CO 2, respectively, for the reference DOE/NETL Case 12 plant, to $128.49/MWh and $41.85/MT CO2 for process case LB1, respectively, and $126.65/MWh and $40.66/MT CO 2 for process case SIH, respectively. With additional innovative Linde-BASF PCC process configuration improvements, the COE and cost of CO 2 captured can be further reduced to $125.51/MWh and $39.90/MT CO 2 for a further optimized PCC process defined as LB1-CREB. Most notably, the Linde-BASF process options assessed have already demonstrated the potential to lower the cost of CO 2 captured below the DOE target of $40/MT CO 2 at the 550 MWe scale for second generation PCC technologies. Project organization, structure, goals, tasks, accomplishments, process criteria and milestones will be presented in this report along with highlights and key results from parametric and long-duration testing of the Linde-BASF PCC pilot. The parametric and long-duration testing campaigns were aimed at validating the performance of the PCC technology against targets determined from a preliminary techno-economic assessment. The stability of the solvent with extended operation in a realistic power plant setting was measured with performance verified. Additionally, general solvent classification information, process operating conditions, normalized solvent performance data, solvent stability test results, flue gas conditions data, CO 2 purity data in the gaseous product stream, steam requirements and process flow diagrams, and updated process economic data for a scaled-up 550 MWe supercritical power plant with CO 2 capture are presented and discussed in this report.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Linde LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1342508
DOE Contract Number:
FE0007453
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 42 ENGINEERING; Carbon capture; post-combustion technology; advanced aqueous amine solvents; techno-economic assessment

Citation Formats

Krishnamurthy, Krish R. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1342508.
Krishnamurthy, Krish R. Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas. United States. doi:10.2172/1342508.
Krishnamurthy, Krish R. Fri . "Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas". United States. doi:10.2172/1342508. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342508.
@article{osti_1342508,
title = {Slipstream pilot-scale demonstration of a novel amine-based post-combustion technology for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plant flue gas},
author = {Krishnamurthy, Krish R.},
abstractNote = {Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) technology offers flexibility to treat the flue gas from both existing and new coal-fired power plants and can be applied to treat all or a portion of the flue gas. Solvent-based technologies are today the leading option for PCC from commercial coal-fired power plants as they have been applied in large-scale in other applications. Linde and BASF have been working together to develop and further improve a PCC process incorporating BASF’s novel aqueous amine-based solvent technology. This technology offers significant benefits compared to other solvent-based processes as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are very stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. In addition, long-term small pilot-scale testing of the BASF solvent has been performed on a lignite-fired flue gas. In coordination with BASF, Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based PCC technology. This report provides a summary of the work performed and results from a project supported by the US DOE (DE-FE0007453) for the pilot-scale demonstration of a Linde-BASF PCC technology using coal-fired power plant flue gas at a 1-1.5 MWe scale in Wilsonville, AL at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). Following a project kick-off meeting in November 2011 and the conclusion of pilot plant design and engineering in February 2013, mechanical completion of the pilot plant was achieved in July 2014, and final commissioning activities were completed to enable start-up of operations in January 2015. Parametric tests were performed from January to December 2015 to determine optimal test conditions and evaluate process performance over a variety of operation parameters. A long-duration 1500-hour continuous test campaign was performed from May to August 2016 at a selected process condition to evaluate process performance and solvent stability over a longer period similar to how the process would operate as a continuously running large-scale PCC plant. The pilot plant integrated a number of unique features of the Linde-BASF technology aimed at lowering overall energy consumption and capital costs. During the overall test period including startup, parametric testing and long-duration testing, the pilot plant was operated for a total of 6,764 hours out of which testing with flue gas was performed for 4,109 hours. The pilot plant testing demonstrated all of the performance targets including CO2 capture rate exceeding 90%, CO2 purity exceeding 99.9 mol% (dry), flue gas processing capacity up to 15,500 lbs/hr (equivalent to 1.5 MWe capacity slipstream), regeneration energy as low as 2.7 GJ/tonne CO2, and regenerator operating pressure up to 3.4 bara. Excellent solvent stability performance data was measured and verified by Linde and BASF during both test campaigns. In addition to process data, significant operational learnings were gained from pilot tests that will contribute greatly to the commercial success of PCC. Based on a thorough techno-economic assessment (TEA) of the Linde-BASF PCC process integrated with a 550 MWe supercritical coal-fired power plant, the net efficiency of the integrated power plant with CO2 capture is increased from 28.4% with the DOE/NETL Case 12 reference to 30.9% with the Linde-BASF PCC plant previously presented utilizing the BASF OASE® blue solvent [Ref. 4], and is further increased to 31.4% using a Linde-BASF PCC plant with BASF OASE® blue solvent and an advanced stripper interstage heater (SIH) configuration. The Linde-BASF PCC plant incorporating the BASF OASE® blue solvent also results in significantly lower overall capital costs, thereby reducing the cost of electricity (COE) and cost of CO2 captured from $147.25/MWh and $56.49/MT CO2, respectively, for the reference DOE/NETL Case 12 plant, to $128.49/MWh and $41.85/MT CO2 for process case LB1, respectively, and $126.65/MWh and $40.66/MT CO2 for process case SIH, respectively. With additional innovative Linde-BASF PCC process configuration improvements, the COE and cost of CO2 captured can be further reduced to $125.51/MWh and $39.90/MT CO2 for a further optimized PCC process defined as LB1-CREB. Most notably, the Linde-BASF process options assessed have already demonstrated the potential to lower the cost of CO2 captured below the DOE target of $40/MT CO2 at the 550 MWe scale for second generation PCC technologies. Project organization, structure, goals, tasks, accomplishments, process criteria and milestones will be presented in this report along with highlights and key results from parametric and long-duration testing of the Linde-BASF PCC pilot. The parametric and long-duration testing campaigns were aimed at validating the performance of the PCC technology against targets determined from a preliminary techno-economic assessment. The stability of the solvent with extended operation in a realistic power plant setting was measured with performance verified. Additionally, general solvent classification information, process operating conditions, normalized solvent performance data, solvent stability test results, flue gas conditions data, CO2 purity data in the gaseous product stream, steam requirements and process flow diagrams, and updated process economic data for a scaled-up 550 MWe supercritical power plant with CO2 capture are presented and discussed in this report.},
doi = {10.2172/1342508},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 03 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Feb 03 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO 2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO 2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact atmore » the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO 2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together with Linde, has completed a preliminary design for the carbon capture pilot plant with basic engineering and cost estimates, established permitting needs, identified approaches to address Environmental, Health, and Safety concerns related to pilot plant installation and operation, developed approaches for long-term use of the captured carbon, and established strategies for workforce development and job creation that will re-train coal operators to operate carbon capture plants. This report describes Phase I accomplishments and demonstrates that the project team is well-prepared for full implementation of Phase 2, to design, build, and operate the carbon capture pilot plant.« less
  • A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy usemore » and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and safety risks have been addressed through experimental tests, consultation with vendors and engineering analysis. Multiple rounds of TEA were performed to improve the GPS-based PCC process design and operation, and to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plant among the DOE/NETL report Case 11 (the PC plant without CO₂ capture), the DOE/NETL report Case 12 (the PC plant with benchmark MEA-based PCC), and the PC plant using GPS-based PCC. The results reveal that the net power produced in the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MWe, greater than that of the Case 12 (550 MWe). The 20-year LCOE for the PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of that of the Case 11, which is also 23% less than that of the Case 12. These results demonstrate that the GPS-based PCC process is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.« less
  • This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references.more » In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.« less
  • This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE).more » Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and low-cost CO{sub 2} compression equipment, an incremental LCOE of $33/MWh at 90% capture can be achieved (40% lower than the advanced MEA case). Even with lower cost compression, it appears unlikely that a membrane process using high feed compression (>5 bar) can be competitive with amine absorption, due to the capital cost and energy consumption of this equipment. Similarly, low vacuum pressure (<0.2 bar) cannot be used due to poor efficiency and high cost of this equipment. High membrane permeance is important to reduce the capital cost and footprint of the membrane unit. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is less important because it is too costly to generate a pressure ratio where high selectivity can be useful. A potential cost ?sweet spot? exists for use of membrane-based technology, if 50-70% CO{sub 2} capture is acceptable. There is a minimum in the cost of CO{sub 2} avoided/ton that membranes can deliver at 60% CO{sub 2} capture, which is 20% lower than the cost at 90% capture. Membranes operating with no feed compression are best suited for lower capture rates. Currently, it appears that the biggest hurdle to use of membranes for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is compression equipment cost. An alternative approach is to use sweep membranes in parallel with another CO{sub 2} capture technology that does not require feed compression or vacuum equipment. Hybrid designs that utilize sweep membranes for selective CO{sub 2} recycle show potential to significantly reduce the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation.« less