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Title: Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint

Abstract

Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal designmore » requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of energy indicate that for large turbines, the cost of permanent magnets and reliability issues associated with brushes in electrically excited machines are the biggest deterrents for building direct-drive systems. The advantage of medium-speed permanent-magnet machines over doubly-fed induction generators is evident, yet, variability in magnet prices and solutions to address reliability issues associated with gearing and brushes can change this outlook. This suggests the need to potentially pursue fundamentally new innovations in generator designs that help avoid high capital costs but still have significant reliability related to performance.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1342376
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5000-67444
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: To be presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 35th Wind Energy Symposium, 9-13 January 2017, Grapevine, Texas
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; permanent magnet; electrically excited; synchronous; doubly fed induction

Citation Formats

Sethuraman, Latha, Maness, Michael, and Dykes, Katherine. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2514/6.2017-0922.
Sethuraman, Latha, Maness, Michael, & Dykes, Katherine. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint. United States. doi:10.2514/6.2017-0922.
Sethuraman, Latha, Maness, Michael, and Dykes, Katherine. Sun . "Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint". United States. doi:10.2514/6.2017-0922. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1342376.
@article{osti_1342376,
title = {Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint},
author = {Sethuraman, Latha and Maness, Michael and Dykes, Katherine},
abstractNote = {Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of energy indicate that for large turbines, the cost of permanent magnets and reliability issues associated with brushes in electrically excited machines are the biggest deterrents for building direct-drive systems. The advantage of medium-speed permanent-magnet machines over doubly-fed induction generators is evident, yet, variability in magnet prices and solutions to address reliability issues associated with gearing and brushes can change this outlook. This suggests the need to potentially pursue fundamentally new innovations in generator designs that help avoid high capital costs but still have significant reliability related to performance.},
doi = {10.2514/6.2017-0922},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
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  • Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation andmore » maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of energy indicate that for large turbines, the cost of permanent magnets and reliability issues associated with brushes in electrically excited machines are the biggest deterrents for building direct-drive systems. The advantage of medium-speed permanent-magnet machines over doubly-fed induction generators is evident, yet, variability in magnet prices and solutions to address reliability issues associated with gearing and brushes can change this outlook. This suggests the need to potentially pursue fundamentally new innovations in generator designs that help avoid high capital costs but still have significant reliability related to performance.« less
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  • In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshoremore » floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.« less
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