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Title: Impact of Tropical SSTs in the North Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1341938
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0016504
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 4; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-04-18 16:08:14; Journal ID: ISSN 0894-8755
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Song, Fengfei, and Zhang, Guang J. Impact of Tropical SSTs in the North Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0310.1.
Song, Fengfei, & Zhang, Guang J. Impact of Tropical SSTs in the North Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ. United States. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0310.1.
Song, Fengfei, and Zhang, Guang J. Wed . "Impact of Tropical SSTs in the North Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ". United States. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0310.1.
@article{osti_1341938,
title = {Impact of Tropical SSTs in the North Atlantic and Southeastern Pacific on the Eastern Pacific ITCZ},
author = {Song, Fengfei and Zhang, Guang J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0310.1},
journal = {Journal of Climate},
number = 4,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 10, 2018
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  • Clusters of sea level pressure (SLP), surface wind, cloudiness, and sea surface temperature (SST) in the domain of the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans are introduced and discussed in terms of general circulation and climate. They appear to capture well the large-scale degrees of freedom of the seasonal fields. In the Atlantic, and, to a lesser extent, in the eastern Pacific, most analyzed fields group into zonally oriented trade wind clusters. These are separated distinctly by the near-equatorial trough axis. By contrast, the Indian Ocean features strong interhemispheric connections associations with the monsoon systems of boreal summer and,more » to a lesser degree, of boreal winter. The usefulness of clusters thus established is elucidated with respect to the Southern Oscillation (SO). General circulation changes associated with this planetary pressure seesaw are deduced from the correlation maps of surface field clusters for January/February and July/August. During the positive SO phase (i.e., anomalously high pressure over the eastern Pacific and anomalously low pressure over Indonesia), both the Atlantic and eastern Pacific near-equatorial troughs are inferred to be shifted towards the north from July/August SLP, wind, and cloudiness fields. While eastern Pacific trade winds are weakened in both seasons in the positive PO phase, the Atlantic trades appear strengthened at the same time in the winter hemisphere only. Over the Indian Ocean, the monsoon circulation seems to be strengthened during the positive SO phase, with the summer monsoon displaying a more complex picture. Its SLP, cloudiness, and SST fields support an enhanced southwest monsoon, while its surface winds appear largely inconclusive. SST is lowered during the positive SO phase in all three tropical oceans.« less
  • Expression of nifH in 28 surface water samples collected during fall 2007 from six stations in the vicinity of the Cape Verde Islands (north-east Atlantic) was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based clone libraries and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of seven diazotrophic phylotypes. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates and nutrient concentrations were determined for these stations, which were selected based on a range in surface chlorophyll concentrations to target a gradient of primary productivity. BNF rates greater than 6 nmolN I{sup -1} h{sup -1} were measured at two of the near-shore stations where high concentrations of Fe and PO{submore » 4}{sup 3-} were also measured. Six hundred and five nifH transcripts were amplified by RT-PCR, of which 76% are described by six operational taxonomic units, including Trichodesmium and the uncultivated UCYN-A, and four non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs that clustered with uncultivated Proteobacteria. Although all five cyanobacterial phylotypes quantified in RT-qPCR assays were detected at different stations in this study, UCYN-A contributed most significantly to the pool of nifH transcripts in both coastal and oligotrophic waters. A comparison of results from RT-PCR clone libraries and RT-qPCR indicated that a {gamma}-proteobacterial phylotype was preferentially amplified in clone libraries, which underscores the need to use caution interpreting clone-library-based nifH studies, especially when considering the importance of uncultivated proteobacterial diazotrophs.« less
  • In past research the Southern Oscillation index has often been used as an indicator of the tropical Pacific climate, notably for El Nino and La Nina event occurrences. This study identifies calendar monthly teleconnection signals in central and eastern North American precipitation associated with an alternative tropical Pacific indicator, sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) patterns. Using an approximate 1{degrees} resolution set of monthly precipitation totals for 1950-92, the work identifies monthly teleconnection relationships and their intraseasonal evolution. This builds upon previous studies that were limited to seasonal timescales. Here, a unique two-way statistical analysis is used to delineate linear SSTA-precipitationmore » teleconnection patterns.« less