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Title: Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario

Publication Date:
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Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-02-01 10:57:07; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Levy, Aaron M. Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.023522.
Levy, Aaron M. Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.023522.
Levy, Aaron M. Mon . "Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.95.023522.
title = {Fine-tuning challenges for the matter bounce scenario},
author = {Levy, Aaron M.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.95.023522},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 2,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2017}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.023522

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  • Massless scalar fields originating in a quantum vacuum state acquire a scale-invariant spectrum of fluctuations in a matter-dominated contracting universe. We show that these isocurvature fluctuations transfer to a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature fluctuations during a non-singular bounce phase. This provides a mechanism for enhancing the primordial adiabatic fluctuations and suppressing the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations. Moreover, this mechanism leads to new sources of non-Gaussianity of curvature perturbations.
  • In the matter bounce scenario, a dust-dominated contracting space-time generates scale-invariant perturbations that, assuming a nonsingular bouncing cosmology, propagate to the expanding branch and set appropriate initial conditions for the radiation-dominated era. Since this scenario depends on the presence of a bounce, it seems appropriate to consider it in the context of loop quantum cosmology where a bouncing universe naturally arises. For a pressureless collapsing universe in loop quantum cosmology, the predicted power spectrum of the scalar perturbations after the bounce is scale-invariant and the tensor to scalar ratio is negligibly small. A slight red tilt can be given tomore » the scale-invariance of the scalar perturbations by a scalar field whose equation of state is P = −ερ, where ε is a small positive number. Then, the power spectrum for tensor perturbations is also almost scale-invariant with the same red tilt as the scalar perturbations, and the tensor to scalar ratio is expected to be r ≈ 9 × 10{sup −4}. Finally, for the predicted amplitude of the scalar perturbations to agree with observations, the critical density in loop quantum cosmology must be of the order ρ{sub c} ∼ 10{sup −9}ρ{sub Pl}.« less
  • The CMB map provided by the Planck project constrains the value of the ratio of tensor-to-scalar perturbations, namely r, to be smaller than 0.11 (95 % CL). This bound rules out the simplest models of inflation. However, recent data from BICEP2 is in strong tension with this constrain, as it finds a value r=0.20{sup +0.07}{sub -0.05} with 0r= disfavored at 7.0 σ, which allows these simplest inflationary models to survive. The remarkable fact is that, even though the BICEP2 experiment was conceived to search for evidence of inflation, its experimental data matches correctly theoretical results coming from the matter bounce scenariomore » (the alternative model to the inflationary paradigm). More precisely, most bouncing cosmologies do not pass Planck's constrains due to the smallness of the value of the tensor/scalar ratio r≤ 0.11, but with new BICEP2 data some of them fit well with experimental data. This is the case with the matter bounce scenario in the teleparallel version of Loop Quantum Cosmology.« less
  • We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel versionmore » of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.« less
  • We will perform a detailed study of the matter-ekpyrotic bouncing scenario in Loop Quantum Cosmology using the methods of the dynamical systems theory. We will show that when the background is driven by a single scalar field, at very late times, in the contracting phase, all orbits depict a matter dominated Universe, which evolves to an ekpyrotic phase. After the bounce the Universe enters in the expanding phase, where the orbits leave the ekpyrotic regime going to a kination (also named deflationary) regime. Moreover, this scenario supports the production of heavy massive particles conformally coupled with gravity, which reheats themore » universe at temperatures compatible with the nucleosynthesis bounds and also the production of massless particles non-conformally coupled with gravity leading to very high reheating temperatures but ensuring the nucleosynthesis success. Dealing with cosmological perturbations, these background dynamics produce a nearly scale invariant power spectrum for the modes that leave the Hubble radius, in the contracting phase, when the Universe is quasi-matter dominated, whose spectral index and corresponding running is compatible with the recent experimental data obtained by PLANCK's team.« less