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Title: Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay

Abstract

Here, a new measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. The antineutrinos were generated by six 2.9 GW th nuclear reactors and detected by eight antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (560 m and 600 m flux-weighted baselines) and one far (1640 m flux-weighted baseline) underground experimental halls. With 621 days of data, more than 1.2 million inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected. The IBD yield in the eight detectors was measured, and the ratio of measured to predicted flux was found to be 0.946 ± 0.020 (0.992 ± 0.021) for the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) model. A 2.9σ deviation was found in the measured IBD positron energy spectrum compared to the predictions. In particular, an excess of events in the region of 4$-$6 MeV was found in the measured spectrum, with a local significance of 4.4σ. Finally, a reactor antineutrino spectrum weighted by the IBD cross section is extracted for model-independent predictions.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); Ministry of Science and Technology of China; Chinese Academy of Sciences; U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF); Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Russia; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic; National Commission for Scienti c and Technological Research of Chile
Contributing Org.:
Daya Bay Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1341712
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1408413
Report Number(s):
BNL-113493-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 1674-1137; R&D Project: PO-022; KA2201020; TRN: US1701050
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chinese Physics. C, High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1674-1137
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; antineutrino; flux energy; spectrum; reactor; Daya Bay

Citation Formats

An, F. P., Balantekin, A. B., Band, H. R., Bishai, M., Blyth, S., Cao, D., Cao, G. F., Cao, J., Cen, W. R., Chan, Y. L., Chang, J. F., Chang, L. C., Chang, Y., Chen, H. S., Chen, Q. Y., Chen, S. M., Chen, Y. X., Chen, Y., Cheng, J. -H., Cheng, J., Cheng, Y. P., Cheng, Z. K., Cherwinka, J. J., Chu, M. C., Chukanov, A., Cummings, J. P., de Arcos, J., Deng, Z. Y., Ding, X. F., Ding, Y. Y., Diwan, M. V., Dolgareva, M., Dove, J., Dwyer, D. A., Edwards, W. R., Gill, R., Gonchar, M., Gong, G. H., Gong, H., Grassi, M., Gu, W. Q., Guan, M. Y., Guo, L., Guo, R. P., Guo, X. H., Guo, Z., Hackenburg, R. W., Han, R., Hans, S., He, M., Heeger, K. M., Heng, Y. K., Higuera, A., Hor, Y. K., Hsiung, Y. B., Hu, B. Z., Hu, T., Hu, W., Huang, E. C., Huang, H. X., Huang, X. T., Huber, P., Huo, W., Hussain, G., Jaffe, D. E., Jaffke, P., Jen, K. L., Jetter, S., Ji, X. P., Ji, X. L., Jiao, J. B., Johnson, R. A., Jones, D., Joshi, J., Kang, L., Kettell, S. H., Kohn, S., Kramer, M., Kwan, K. K., Kwok, M. W., Kwok, T., Langford, T. J., Lau, K., Lebanowski, L., Lee, J., Lee, J. H. C., Lei, R. T., Leitner, R., Li, C., Li, D. J., Li, F., Li, G. S., Li, Q. J., Li, S., Li, S. C., Li, W. D., Li, X. N., Li, Y. F., Li, Z. B., Liang, H., Lin, C. J., Lin, G. L., Lin, S., Lin, S. K., Lin, Y. -C., Ling, J. J., Link, J. M., Littenberg, L., Littlejohn, B. R., Liu, D. W., Liu, J. L., Liu, J. C., Loh, C. W., Lu, C., Lu, H. Q., Lu, J. S., Luk, K. B., Lv, Z., Ma, Q. M., Ma, X. Y., Ma, X. B., Ma, Y. Q., Malyshkin, Y., Martinez Caicedo, D. A., McDonald, K. T., McKeown, R. D., Mitchell, I., Mooney, M., Nakajima, Y., Napolitano, J., Naumov, D., Naumova, E., Ngai, H. Y., Ning, Z., Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P., Olshevskiy, A., Pan, H. -R., Park, J., Patton, S., Pec, V., Peng, J. C., Pinsky, L., Pun, C. S. J., Qi, F. Z., Qi, M., Qian, X., Raper, N., Ren, J., Rosero, R., Roskovec, B., Ruan, X. C., Steiner, H., Sun, G. X., Sun, J. L., Tang, W., Taychenachev, D., Treskov, K., Tsang, K. V., Tull, C. E., Viaux, N., Viren, B., Vorobel, V., Wang, C. H., Wang, M., Wang, N. Y., Wang, R. G., Wang, W., Wang, X., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, H. Y., Wen, L. J., Whisnant, K., White, C. G., Whitehead, L., Wise, T., Wong, H. L. H., Wong, S. C. F., Worcester, E., Wu, C. -H., Wu, Q., Wu, W. J., Xia, D. M., Xia, J. K., Xing, Z. Z., Xu, J. Y., Xu, J. L., Xu, Y., Xue, T., Yang, C. G., Yang, H., Yang, L., Yang, M. S., Yang, M. T., Ye, M., Ye, Z., Yeh, M., Young, B. L., Yu, Z. Y., Zeng, S., Zhan, L., Zhang, C., Zhang, H. H., Zhang, J. W., Zhang, Q. M., Zhang, X. T., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Y. X., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Z. J., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhang, Z. P., Zhao, J., Zhao, Q. W., Zhao, Y. B., Zhong, W. L., Zhou, L., Zhou, N., Zhuang, H. L., and Zou, J. H. Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013002.
An, F. P., Balantekin, A. B., Band, H. R., Bishai, M., Blyth, S., Cao, D., Cao, G. F., Cao, J., Cen, W. R., Chan, Y. L., Chang, J. F., Chang, L. C., Chang, Y., Chen, H. S., Chen, Q. Y., Chen, S. M., Chen, Y. X., Chen, Y., Cheng, J. -H., Cheng, J., Cheng, Y. P., Cheng, Z. K., Cherwinka, J. J., Chu, M. C., Chukanov, A., Cummings, J. P., de Arcos, J., Deng, Z. Y., Ding, X. F., Ding, Y. Y., Diwan, M. V., Dolgareva, M., Dove, J., Dwyer, D. A., Edwards, W. R., Gill, R., Gonchar, M., Gong, G. H., Gong, H., Grassi, M., Gu, W. Q., Guan, M. Y., Guo, L., Guo, R. P., Guo, X. H., Guo, Z., Hackenburg, R. W., Han, R., Hans, S., He, M., Heeger, K. M., Heng, Y. K., Higuera, A., Hor, Y. K., Hsiung, Y. B., Hu, B. Z., Hu, T., Hu, W., Huang, E. C., Huang, H. X., Huang, X. T., Huber, P., Huo, W., Hussain, G., Jaffe, D. E., Jaffke, P., Jen, K. L., Jetter, S., Ji, X. P., Ji, X. L., Jiao, J. B., Johnson, R. A., Jones, D., Joshi, J., Kang, L., Kettell, S. H., Kohn, S., Kramer, M., Kwan, K. K., Kwok, M. W., Kwok, T., Langford, T. J., Lau, K., Lebanowski, L., Lee, J., Lee, J. H. C., Lei, R. T., Leitner, R., Li, C., Li, D. J., Li, F., Li, G. S., Li, Q. J., Li, S., Li, S. C., Li, W. D., Li, X. N., Li, Y. F., Li, Z. B., Liang, H., Lin, C. J., Lin, G. L., Lin, S., Lin, S. K., Lin, Y. -C., Ling, J. J., Link, J. M., Littenberg, L., Littlejohn, B. R., Liu, D. W., Liu, J. L., Liu, J. C., Loh, C. W., Lu, C., Lu, H. Q., Lu, J. S., Luk, K. B., Lv, Z., Ma, Q. M., Ma, X. Y., Ma, X. B., Ma, Y. Q., Malyshkin, Y., Martinez Caicedo, D. A., McDonald, K. T., McKeown, R. D., Mitchell, I., Mooney, M., Nakajima, Y., Napolitano, J., Naumov, D., Naumova, E., Ngai, H. Y., Ning, Z., Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P., Olshevskiy, A., Pan, H. -R., Park, J., Patton, S., Pec, V., Peng, J. C., Pinsky, L., Pun, C. S. J., Qi, F. Z., Qi, M., Qian, X., Raper, N., Ren, J., Rosero, R., Roskovec, B., Ruan, X. C., Steiner, H., Sun, G. X., Sun, J. L., Tang, W., Taychenachev, D., Treskov, K., Tsang, K. V., Tull, C. E., Viaux, N., Viren, B., Vorobel, V., Wang, C. H., Wang, M., Wang, N. Y., Wang, R. G., Wang, W., Wang, X., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, H. Y., Wen, L. J., Whisnant, K., White, C. G., Whitehead, L., Wise, T., Wong, H. L. H., Wong, S. C. F., Worcester, E., Wu, C. -H., Wu, Q., Wu, W. J., Xia, D. M., Xia, J. K., Xing, Z. Z., Xu, J. Y., Xu, J. L., Xu, Y., Xue, T., Yang, C. G., Yang, H., Yang, L., Yang, M. S., Yang, M. T., Ye, M., Ye, Z., Yeh, M., Young, B. L., Yu, Z. Y., Zeng, S., Zhan, L., Zhang, C., Zhang, H. H., Zhang, J. W., Zhang, Q. M., Zhang, X. T., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Y. X., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Z. J., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhang, Z. P., Zhao, J., Zhao, Q. W., Zhao, Y. B., Zhong, W. L., Zhou, L., Zhou, N., Zhuang, H. L., & Zou, J. H. Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay. United States. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013002.
An, F. P., Balantekin, A. B., Band, H. R., Bishai, M., Blyth, S., Cao, D., Cao, G. F., Cao, J., Cen, W. R., Chan, Y. L., Chang, J. F., Chang, L. C., Chang, Y., Chen, H. S., Chen, Q. Y., Chen, S. M., Chen, Y. X., Chen, Y., Cheng, J. -H., Cheng, J., Cheng, Y. P., Cheng, Z. K., Cherwinka, J. J., Chu, M. C., Chukanov, A., Cummings, J. P., de Arcos, J., Deng, Z. Y., Ding, X. F., Ding, Y. Y., Diwan, M. V., Dolgareva, M., Dove, J., Dwyer, D. A., Edwards, W. R., Gill, R., Gonchar, M., Gong, G. H., Gong, H., Grassi, M., Gu, W. Q., Guan, M. Y., Guo, L., Guo, R. P., Guo, X. H., Guo, Z., Hackenburg, R. W., Han, R., Hans, S., He, M., Heeger, K. M., Heng, Y. K., Higuera, A., Hor, Y. K., Hsiung, Y. B., Hu, B. Z., Hu, T., Hu, W., Huang, E. C., Huang, H. X., Huang, X. T., Huber, P., Huo, W., Hussain, G., Jaffe, D. E., Jaffke, P., Jen, K. L., Jetter, S., Ji, X. P., Ji, X. L., Jiao, J. B., Johnson, R. A., Jones, D., Joshi, J., Kang, L., Kettell, S. H., Kohn, S., Kramer, M., Kwan, K. K., Kwok, M. W., Kwok, T., Langford, T. J., Lau, K., Lebanowski, L., Lee, J., Lee, J. H. C., Lei, R. T., Leitner, R., Li, C., Li, D. J., Li, F., Li, G. S., Li, Q. J., Li, S., Li, S. C., Li, W. D., Li, X. N., Li, Y. F., Li, Z. B., Liang, H., Lin, C. J., Lin, G. L., Lin, S., Lin, S. K., Lin, Y. -C., Ling, J. J., Link, J. M., Littenberg, L., Littlejohn, B. R., Liu, D. W., Liu, J. L., Liu, J. C., Loh, C. W., Lu, C., Lu, H. Q., Lu, J. S., Luk, K. B., Lv, Z., Ma, Q. M., Ma, X. Y., Ma, X. B., Ma, Y. Q., Malyshkin, Y., Martinez Caicedo, D. A., McDonald, K. T., McKeown, R. D., Mitchell, I., Mooney, M., Nakajima, Y., Napolitano, J., Naumov, D., Naumova, E., Ngai, H. Y., Ning, Z., Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P., Olshevskiy, A., Pan, H. -R., Park, J., Patton, S., Pec, V., Peng, J. C., Pinsky, L., Pun, C. S. J., Qi, F. Z., Qi, M., Qian, X., Raper, N., Ren, J., Rosero, R., Roskovec, B., Ruan, X. C., Steiner, H., Sun, G. X., Sun, J. L., Tang, W., Taychenachev, D., Treskov, K., Tsang, K. V., Tull, C. E., Viaux, N., Viren, B., Vorobel, V., Wang, C. H., Wang, M., Wang, N. Y., Wang, R. G., Wang, W., Wang, X., Wang, Y. F., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Wang, Z. M., Wei, H. Y., Wen, L. J., Whisnant, K., White, C. G., Whitehead, L., Wise, T., Wong, H. L. H., Wong, S. C. F., Worcester, E., Wu, C. -H., Wu, Q., Wu, W. J., Xia, D. M., Xia, J. K., Xing, Z. Z., Xu, J. Y., Xu, J. L., Xu, Y., Xue, T., Yang, C. G., Yang, H., Yang, L., Yang, M. S., Yang, M. T., Ye, M., Ye, Z., Yeh, M., Young, B. L., Yu, Z. Y., Zeng, S., Zhan, L., Zhang, C., Zhang, H. H., Zhang, J. W., Zhang, Q. M., Zhang, X. T., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Y. X., Zhang, Y. M., Zhang, Z. J., Zhang, Z. Y., Zhang, Z. P., Zhao, J., Zhao, Q. W., Zhao, Y. B., Zhong, W. L., Zhou, L., Zhou, N., Zhuang, H. L., and Zou, J. H. Sun . "Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay". United States. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013002. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1341712.
@article{osti_1341712,
title = {Improved measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum at Daya Bay},
author = {An, F. P. and Balantekin, A. B. and Band, H. R. and Bishai, M. and Blyth, S. and Cao, D. and Cao, G. F. and Cao, J. and Cen, W. R. and Chan, Y. L. and Chang, J. F. and Chang, L. C. and Chang, Y. and Chen, H. S. and Chen, Q. Y. and Chen, S. M. and Chen, Y. X. and Chen, Y. and Cheng, J. -H. and Cheng, J. and Cheng, Y. P. and Cheng, Z. K. and Cherwinka, J. J. and Chu, M. C. and Chukanov, A. and Cummings, J. P. and de Arcos, J. and Deng, Z. Y. and Ding, X. F. and Ding, Y. Y. and Diwan, M. V. and Dolgareva, M. and Dove, J. and Dwyer, D. A. and Edwards, W. R. and Gill, R. and Gonchar, M. and Gong, G. H. and Gong, H. and Grassi, M. and Gu, W. Q. and Guan, M. Y. and Guo, L. and Guo, R. P. and Guo, X. H. and Guo, Z. and Hackenburg, R. W. and Han, R. and Hans, S. and He, M. and Heeger, K. M. and Heng, Y. K. and Higuera, A. and Hor, Y. K. and Hsiung, Y. B. and Hu, B. Z. and Hu, T. and Hu, W. and Huang, E. C. and Huang, H. X. and Huang, X. T. and Huber, P. and Huo, W. and Hussain, G. and Jaffe, D. E. and Jaffke, P. and Jen, K. L. and Jetter, S. and Ji, X. P. and Ji, X. L. and Jiao, J. B. and Johnson, R. A. and Jones, D. and Joshi, J. and Kang, L. and Kettell, S. H. and Kohn, S. and Kramer, M. and Kwan, K. K. and Kwok, M. W. and Kwok, T. and Langford, T. J. and Lau, K. and Lebanowski, L. and Lee, J. and Lee, J. H. C. and Lei, R. T. and Leitner, R. and Li, C. and Li, D. J. and Li, F. and Li, G. S. and Li, Q. J. and Li, S. and Li, S. C. and Li, W. D. and Li, X. N. and Li, Y. F. and Li, Z. B. and Liang, H. and Lin, C. J. and Lin, G. L. and Lin, S. and Lin, S. K. and Lin, Y. -C. and Ling, J. J. and Link, J. M. and Littenberg, L. and Littlejohn, B. R. and Liu, D. W. and Liu, J. L. and Liu, J. C. and Loh, C. W. and Lu, C. and Lu, H. Q. and Lu, J. S. and Luk, K. B. and Lv, Z. and Ma, Q. M. and Ma, X. Y. and Ma, X. B. and Ma, Y. Q. and Malyshkin, Y. and Martinez Caicedo, D. A. and McDonald, K. T. and McKeown, R. D. and Mitchell, I. and Mooney, M. and Nakajima, Y. and Napolitano, J. and Naumov, D. and Naumova, E. and Ngai, H. Y. and Ning, Z. and Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P. and Olshevskiy, A. and Pan, H. -R. and Park, J. and Patton, S. and Pec, V. and Peng, J. C. and Pinsky, L. and Pun, C. S. J. and Qi, F. Z. and Qi, M. and Qian, X. and Raper, N. and Ren, J. and Rosero, R. and Roskovec, B. and Ruan, X. C. and Steiner, H. and Sun, G. X. and Sun, J. L. and Tang, W. and Taychenachev, D. and Treskov, K. and Tsang, K. V. and Tull, C. E. and Viaux, N. and Viren, B. and Vorobel, V. and Wang, C. H. and Wang, M. and Wang, N. Y. and Wang, R. G. and Wang, W. and Wang, X. and Wang, Y. F. and Wang, Z. and Wang, Z. and Wang, Z. M. and Wei, H. Y. and Wen, L. J. and Whisnant, K. and White, C. G. and Whitehead, L. and Wise, T. and Wong, H. L. H. and Wong, S. C. F. and Worcester, E. and Wu, C. -H. and Wu, Q. and Wu, W. J. and Xia, D. M. and Xia, J. K. and Xing, Z. Z. and Xu, J. Y. and Xu, J. L. and Xu, Y. and Xue, T. and Yang, C. G. and Yang, H. and Yang, L. and Yang, M. S. and Yang, M. T. and Ye, M. and Ye, Z. and Yeh, M. and Young, B. L. and Yu, Z. Y. and Zeng, S. and Zhan, L. and Zhang, C. and Zhang, H. H. and Zhang, J. W. and Zhang, Q. M. and Zhang, X. T. and Zhang, Y. M. and Zhang, Y. X. and Zhang, Y. M. and Zhang, Z. J. and Zhang, Z. Y. and Zhang, Z. P. and Zhao, J. and Zhao, Q. W. and Zhao, Y. B. and Zhong, W. L. and Zhou, L. and Zhou, N. and Zhuang, H. L. and Zou, J. H.},
abstractNote = {Here, a new measurement of the reactor antineutrino flux and energy spectrum by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is reported. The antineutrinos were generated by six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors and detected by eight antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (560 m and 600 m flux-weighted baselines) and one far (1640 m flux-weighted baseline) underground experimental halls. With 621 days of data, more than 1.2 million inverse beta decay (IBD) candidates were detected. The IBD yield in the eight detectors was measured, and the ratio of measured to predicted flux was found to be 0.946 ± 0.020 (0.992 ± 0.021) for the Huber+Mueller (ILL+Vogel) model. A 2.9σ deviation was found in the measured IBD positron energy spectrum compared to the predictions. In particular, an excess of events in the region of 4$-$6 MeV was found in the measured spectrum, with a local significance of 4.4σ. Finally, a reactor antineutrino spectrum weighted by the IBD cross section is extracted for model-independent predictions.},
doi = {10.1088/1674-1137/41/1/013002},
journal = {Chinese Physics. C, High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics},
issn = {1674-1137},
number = 1,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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Reactor antineutrino anomaly with known θ 13
journal, April 2013


Limits on neutrino oscillations from the CHOOZ experiment
journal, November 1999


Final results from the Palo Verde neutrino oscillation experiment
journal, November 2001


Spectral Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Oscillation Amplitude and Frequency at Daya Bay
journal, February 2014


Gamma-calibration of NE 213 scintillation counters
journal, March 1982


Nuclear structure insights into reactor antineutrino spectra
journal, January 2015


SVD approach to data unfolding
journal, April 1996

  • Höcker, Andreas; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 372, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(95)01478-0

A multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayes' theorem
journal, August 1995

  • D'Agostini, G.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 362, Issue 2-3
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