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Title: Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu + Au Collisions at s N N = 200 GeV

Abstract

Here we present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu + Au collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$$_ {NN}$$ = 200 GeV . The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1fm / c .

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Contributing Org.:
STAR Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1341700
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1338655
Report Number(s):
BNL-113447-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; R&D Project: PO 004; KB0202012; TRN: US1701030
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Citation Formats

Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Anderson, D. M., Aoyama, R., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Ashraf, M. U., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chatterjee, A., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Esumi, S., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Finch, E., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, S., Gupta, A., Guryn, W., Hamad, A. I., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Jowzaee, S., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Y., Li, C., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, Y., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Luo, S., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., McKinzie, S., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Miller, Z. W., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Nonaka, T., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Ray, R. L., Reed, R., Rehbein, M. J., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roth, J. D., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, A., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shi, Z., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sugiura, T., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, F., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xie, G., Xin, K., Xu, Q. H., Xu, Y. F., Xu, H., Xu, Z., Xu, N., Xu, J., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M.. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sNN=200 GeV. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.012301.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Anderson, D. M., Aoyama, R., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Ashraf, M. U., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chatterjee, A., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Esumi, S., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Finch, E., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, S., Gupta, A., Guryn, W., Hamad, A. I., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Jowzaee, S., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Y., Li, C., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, Y., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Luo, S., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., McKinzie, S., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Miller, Z. W., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Nonaka, T., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Ray, R. L., Reed, R., Rehbein, M. J., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roth, J. D., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, A., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shi, Z., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sugiura, T., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, F., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xie, G., Xin, K., Xu, Q. H., Xu, Y. F., Xu, H., Xu, Z., Xu, N., Xu, J., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., & Zyzak, M.. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sNN=200 GeV. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.012301.
Adamczyk, L., Adkins, J. K., Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alekseev, I., Anderson, D. M., Aoyama, R., Aparin, A., Arkhipkin, D., Aschenauer, E. C., Ashraf, M. U., Attri, A., Averichev, G. S., Bai, X., Bairathi, V., Bellwied, R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bhattarai, P., Bielcik, J., Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Bouchet, J., Brandenburg, J. D., Brandin, A. V., Bunzarov, I., Butterworth, J., Caines, H., Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M., Campbell, J. M., Cebra, D., Chakaberia, I., Chaloupka, P., Chang, Z., Chatterjee, A., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, X., Chen, J. H., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Christie, W., Contin, G., Crawford, H. J., Das, S., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., di Ruzza, B., Didenko, L., Dilks, C., Dong, X., Drachenberg, J. L., Draper, J. E., Du, C. M., Dunkelberger, L. E., Dunlop, J. C., Efimov, L. G., Engelage, J., Eppley, G., Esha, R., Esumi, S., Evdokimov, O., Eyser, O., Fatemi, R., Fazio, S., Federic, P., Fedorisin, J., Feng, Z., Filip, P., Finch, E., Fisyak, Y., Flores, C. E., Fulek, L., Gagliardi, C. A., Garand, D., Geurts, F., Gibson, A., Girard, M., Greiner, L., Grosnick, D., Gunarathne, D. S., Guo, Y., Gupta, S., Gupta, A., Guryn, W., Hamad, A. I., Hamed, A., Haque, R., Harris, J. W., He, L., Heppelmann, S., Heppelmann, S., Hirsch, A., Hoffmann, G. W., Horvat, S., Huang, B., Huang, X., Huang, H. Z., Huang, T., Huck, P., Humanic, T. J., Igo, G., Jacobs, W. W., Jentsch, A., Jia, J., Jiang, K., Jowzaee, S., Judd, E. G., Kabana, S., Kalinkin, D., Kang, K., Kauder, K., Ke, H. W., Keane, D., Kechechyan, A., Khan, Z. H., Kikoła, D. P., Kisel, I., Kisiel, A., Kochenda, L., Koetke, D. D., Kosarzewski, L. K., Kraishan, A. F., Kravtsov, P., Krueger, K., Kumar, L., Lamont, M. A. C., Landgraf, J. M., Landry, K. D., Lauret, J., Lebedev, A., Lednicky, R., Lee, J. H., Li, Y., Li, C., Li, W., Li, X., Li, X., Lin, T., Lisa, M. A., Liu, Y., Liu, F., Ljubicic, T., Llope, W. J., Lomnitz, M., Longacre, R. S., Luo, X., Luo, S., Ma, G. L., Ma, R., Ma, Y. G., Ma, L., Magdy, N., Majka, R., Manion, A., Margetis, S., Markert, C., Matis, H. S., McDonald, D., McKinzie, S., Meehan, K., Mei, J. C., Miller, Z. W., Minaev, N. G., Mioduszewski, S., Mishra, D., Mohanty, B., Mondal, M. M., Morozov, D. A., Mustafa, M. K., Nandi, B. K., Nasim, Md., Nayak, T. K., Nigmatkulov, G., Niida, T., Nogach, L. V., Nonaka, T., Novak, J., Nurushev, S. B., Odyniec, G., Ogawa, A., Oh, K., Okorokov, V. A., Olvitt, D., Page, B. S., Pak, R., Pan, Y. X., Pandit, Y., Panebratsev, Y., Pawlik, B., Pei, H., Perkins, C., Pile, P., Pluta, J., Poniatowska, K., Porter, J., Posik, M., Poskanzer, A. M., Pruthi, N. K., Przybycien, M., Putschke, J., Qiu, H., Quintero, A., Ramachandran, S., Ray, R. L., Reed, R., Rehbein, M. J., Ritter, H. G., Roberts, J. B., Rogachevskiy, O. V., Romero, J. L., Roth, J. D., Ruan, L., Rusnak, J., Rusnakova, O., Sahoo, N. R., Sahu, P. K., Sakrejda, I., Salur, S., Sandweiss, J., Sarkar, A., Schambach, J., Scharenberg, R. P., Schmah, A. M., Schmidke, W. B., Schmitz, N., Seger, J., Seyboth, P., Shah, N., Shahaliev, E., Shanmuganathan, P. V., Shao, M., Sharma, A., Sharma, M. K., Sharma, B., Shen, W. Q., Shi, S. S., Shi, Z., Shou, Q. Y., Sichtermann, E. P., Sikora, R., Simko, M., Singha, S., Skoby, M. J., Smirnov, D., Smirnov, N., Solyst, W., Song, L., Sorensen, P., Spinka, H. M., Srivastava, B., Stanislaus, T. D. S., Stepanov, M., Stock, R., Strikhanov, M., Stringfellow, B., Sugiura, T., Sumbera, M., Summa, B., Sun, Z., Sun, Y., Sun, X. M., Surrow, B., Svirida, D. N., Tang, A. H., Tang, Z., Tarnowsky, T., Tawfik, A., Thäder, J., Thomas, J. H., Timmins, A. R., Tlusty, D., Todoroki, T., Tokarev, M., Trentalange, S., Tribble, R. E., Tribedy, P., Tripathy, S. K., Tsai, O. D., Ullrich, T., Underwood, D. G., Upsal, I., Van Buren, G., van Nieuwenhuizen, G., Varma, R., Vasiliev, A. N., Vertesi, R., Videbæk, F., Vokal, S., Voloshin, S. A., Vossen, A., Wang, G., Wang, F., Wang, J. S., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Webb, J. C., Webb, G., Wen, L., Westfall, G. D., Wieman, H., Wissink, S. W., Witt, R., Wu, Y., Xiao, Z. G., Xie, W., Xie, G., Xin, K., Xu, Q. H., Xu, Y. F., Xu, H., Xu, Z., Xu, N., Xu, J., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Yang, S., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Yang, Y., Ye, Z., Ye, Z., Yi, L., Yip, K., Yoo, I. -K., Yu, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zha, W., Zhang, J., Zhang, X. P., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J. B., Zhang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Zhao, J., Zhong, C., Zhou, L., Zhu, X., Zoulkarneeva, Y., and Zyzak, M.. Thu . "Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sNN=200 GeV". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.012301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1341700.
@article{osti_1341700,
title = {Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sNN=200 GeV},
author = {Adamczyk, L. and Adkins, J. K. and Agakishiev, G. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Ahammed, Z. and Alekseev, I. and Anderson, D. M. and Aoyama, R. and Aparin, A. and Arkhipkin, D. and Aschenauer, E. C. and Ashraf, M. U. and Attri, A. and Averichev, G. S. and Bai, X. and Bairathi, V. and Bellwied, R. and Bhasin, A. and Bhati, A. K. and Bhattarai, P. and Bielcik, J. and Bielcikova, J. and Bland, L. C. and Bordyuzhin, I. G. and Bouchet, J. and Brandenburg, J. D. and Brandin, A. V. and Bunzarov, I. and Butterworth, J. and Caines, H. and Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M. and Campbell, J. M. and Cebra, D. and Chakaberia, I. and Chaloupka, P. and Chang, Z. and Chatterjee, A. and Chattopadhyay, S. and Chen, X. and Chen, J. H. and Cheng, J. and Cherney, M. and Christie, W. and Contin, G. and Crawford, H. J. and Das, S. and De Silva, L. C. and Debbe, R. R. and Dedovich, T. G. and Deng, J. and Derevschikov, A. A. and di Ruzza, B. and Didenko, L. and Dilks, C. and Dong, X. and Drachenberg, J. L. and Draper, J. E. and Du, C. M. and Dunkelberger, L. E. and Dunlop, J. C. and Efimov, L. G. and Engelage, J. and Eppley, G. and Esha, R. and Esumi, S. and Evdokimov, O. and Eyser, O. and Fatemi, R. and Fazio, S. and Federic, P. and Fedorisin, J. and Feng, Z. and Filip, P. and Finch, E. and Fisyak, Y. and Flores, C. E. and Fulek, L. and Gagliardi, C. A. and Garand, D. and Geurts, F. and Gibson, A. and Girard, M. and Greiner, L. and Grosnick, D. and Gunarathne, D. S. and Guo, Y. and Gupta, S. and Gupta, A. and Guryn, W. and Hamad, A. I. and Hamed, A. and Haque, R. and Harris, J. W. and He, L. and Heppelmann, S. and Heppelmann, S. and Hirsch, A. and Hoffmann, G. W. and Horvat, S. and Huang, B. and Huang, X. and Huang, H. Z. and Huang, T. and Huck, P. and Humanic, T. J. and Igo, G. and Jacobs, W. W. and Jentsch, A. and Jia, J. and Jiang, K. and Jowzaee, S. and Judd, E. G. and Kabana, S. and Kalinkin, D. and Kang, K. and Kauder, K. and Ke, H. 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abstractNote = {Here we present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s}$$_ {NN}$ = 200 GeV . The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1fm / c .},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.012301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 118,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 05 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Jan 05 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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