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Title: Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi 2 Se 3

Abstract

The search for unconventional superconductivity has been focused on materials with strong spin-orbit coupling and unique crystal lattices. Doped bismuth selenide (Bi 2Se 3) is a strong candidate, given the topological insulator nature of the parent compound and its triangular lattice. The coupling between the physical properties in the superconducting state and its underlying crystal symmetry is a crucial test for unconventional superconductivity. In this paper, we report direct evidence that the superconducting magnetic response couples strongly to the underlying trigonal crystal symmetry in the recently discovered superconductor with trigonal crystal structure, niobium (Nb)-doped Bi 2Se 3. As a result, the in-plane magnetic torque signal vanishes every 60°. More importantly, the superconducting hysteresis loop amplitude is enhanced along one preferred direction, spontaneously breaking the rotational symmetry. This observation indicates the presence of nematic order in the superconducting ground state of Nb-doped Bi 2Se 3.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  2. Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)
  3. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1341323
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1366695
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0008110
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review. X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Asaba, Tomoya, Lawson, B. J., Tinsman, Colin, Chen, Lu, Corbae, Paul, Li, Gang, Qiu, Y., Hor, Y. S., Fu, Liang, and Li, Lu. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi2Se3. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011009.
Asaba, Tomoya, Lawson, B. J., Tinsman, Colin, Chen, Lu, Corbae, Paul, Li, Gang, Qiu, Y., Hor, Y. S., Fu, Liang, & Li, Lu. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi2Se3. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011009.
Asaba, Tomoya, Lawson, B. J., Tinsman, Colin, Chen, Lu, Corbae, Paul, Li, Gang, Qiu, Y., Hor, Y. S., Fu, Liang, and Li, Lu. Fri . "Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi2Se3". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011009.
@article{osti_1341323,
title = {Rotational Symmetry Breaking in a Trigonal Superconductor Nb-doped Bi2Se3},
author = {Asaba, Tomoya and Lawson, B. J. and Tinsman, Colin and Chen, Lu and Corbae, Paul and Li, Gang and Qiu, Y. and Hor, Y. S. and Fu, Liang and Li, Lu},
abstractNote = {The search for unconventional superconductivity has been focused on materials with strong spin-orbit coupling and unique crystal lattices. Doped bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a strong candidate, given the topological insulator nature of the parent compound and its triangular lattice. The coupling between the physical properties in the superconducting state and its underlying crystal symmetry is a crucial test for unconventional superconductivity. In this paper, we report direct evidence that the superconducting magnetic response couples strongly to the underlying trigonal crystal symmetry in the recently discovered superconductor with trigonal crystal structure, niobium (Nb)-doped Bi2Se3. As a result, the in-plane magnetic torque signal vanishes every 60°. More importantly, the superconducting hysteresis loop amplitude is enhanced along one preferred direction, spontaneously breaking the rotational symmetry. This observation indicates the presence of nematic order in the superconducting ground state of Nb-doped Bi2Se3.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011009},
journal = {Physical Review. X},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011009

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 15works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • The search for unconventional superconductivity has been focused on materials with strong spin-orbit coupling and unique crystal lattices. Doped bismuth selenide (Bi 2Se 3) is a strong candidate, given the topological insulator nature of the parent compound and its triangular lattice. The coupling between the physical properties in the superconducting state and its underlying crystal symmetry is a crucial test for unconventional superconductivity. In this paper, we report direct evidence that the superconducting magnetic response couples strongly to the underlying trigonal crystal symmetry in the recently discovered superconductor with trigonal crystal structure, niobium (Nb)-doped Bi 2Se 3. As a result,more » the in-plane magnetic torque signal vanishes every 60°. More importantly, the superconducting hysteresis loop amplitude is enhanced along one preferred direction, spontaneously breaking the rotational symmetry. This observation indicates the presence of nematic order in the superconducting ground state of Nb-doped Bi 2Se 3.« less
  • We used low-energy, momentum-resolved inelastic electron scattering to study surface collective modes of the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi 2Se 3 and Bi 0.5Sb 1.5Te 3-xSe x . Our goal was to identify the “spin plasmon” predicted by Raghu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 116401 (2010)]. Instead, we found that the primary collective mode is a surface plasmon arising from the bulk, free carriers in these materials. This excitation dominates the spectral weight in the bosonic function of the surface χ '' ( q , ω ) at THz energy scales, and is the most likely origin of a quasiparticlemore » dispersion kink observed in previous photoemission experiments. Our study suggests that the spin plasmon may mix with this other surface mode, calling for a more nuanced understanding of optical experiments in which the spin plasmon is reported to play a role.« less
  • We used low-energy, momentum-resolved inelastic electron scattering to study surface collective modes of the three-dimensional topological insulators Bi 2 Se 3 and Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 - x Se x . Our goal was to identify the “spin plasmon” predicted by Raghu and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 116401 (2010)]. Instead, we found that the primary collective mode is a surface plasmon arising from the bulk, free carriers in these materials. This excitation dominates the spectral weight in the bosonic function of the surface χ '' ( q , ω ) at THz energy scales, and is themore » most likely origin of a quasiparticle dispersion kink observed in previous photoemission experiments. Our study suggests that the spin plasmon may mix with this other surface mode, calling for a more nuanced understanding of optical experiments in which the spin plasmon is reported to play a role« less
  • We report comprehensive 77 Se NMR measurements on a single crystalline sample of the recently discovered FeSe-based high-temperature superconductor K x Fe 2 - y Se 2 ( T c = 33 K) in a broad temperature range up to 290 K. Despite deviations from the stoichiometric KFe 2 Se 2 composition, we observed 77 Se NMR line shapes as narrow as 4.5 kHz under a magnetic field applied along the crystal c axis, and found no evidence for co-existence of magnetic order with superconductivity. On the other hand, the 77 Se NMR line shape splits into two peaks withmore » equal intensities at all temperatures when we apply the magnetic field along the ab plane. This suggests that K vacancies may have a superstructure and that the local symmetry of the Se sites is lower than the tetragonal fourfold symmetry of the average structure. This effect might be a prerequisite for stabilizing the s ± symmetry of superconductivity in the absence of the hole bands at the Brillouin zone center. From the increase of NMR linewidth below T c induced by the Abrikosov lattice of superconducting vortices, we estimate the in-plane penetration depth λ ab ~ 290 nm and the carrier concentration n e ~ 1 × 10 + 21 cm - 3 . Our Knight shift 77 K data indicate that the uniform spin susceptibility decreases progressively with temperature, in analogy with the case of FeSe ( T c ~ 9 K) as well as other FeAs high- T c systems. The strong suppression of 77 K observed immediately below T c for all crystal orientations is consistent with a singlet pairing of Cooper pairs. We do not however observe the Hebel-Slichter coherence peak of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 / T 1 immediately below T c , expected for conventional BCS s-wave superconductors. In contrast with the case of FeSe, we do not observe evidence for an enhancement of low-frequency antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations near T c in 1 / T 1 T . Instead, 1 / T 1 T exhibits qualitatively the same behavior as overdoped non-superconducting Ba(Fe 1 - x Co x ) 2 As 2 with x ~ 0 . 14 or greater, where hole bands are missing in the Brillouin zone center. We will discuss the implications of our results on the unknown mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity in FeSe and FeAs systems.« less