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Title: Insights into photosystem II from isomorphous difference Fourier maps of femtosecond X-ray diffraction data and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics structural models

Abstract

Understanding structure–function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metal centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Lastly, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure–function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1341225
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1345213
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0001423; FG02-05ER15646
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Energy Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Wang, Jimin, Askerka, Mikhail, Brudvig, Gary W., and Batista, Victor S. Insights into photosystem II from isomorphous difference Fourier maps of femtosecond X-ray diffraction data and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics structural models. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00626.
Wang, Jimin, Askerka, Mikhail, Brudvig, Gary W., & Batista, Victor S. Insights into photosystem II from isomorphous difference Fourier maps of femtosecond X-ray diffraction data and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics structural models. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00626.
Wang, Jimin, Askerka, Mikhail, Brudvig, Gary W., and Batista, Victor S. Thu . "Insights into photosystem II from isomorphous difference Fourier maps of femtosecond X-ray diffraction data and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics structural models". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00626.
@article{osti_1341225,
title = {Insights into photosystem II from isomorphous difference Fourier maps of femtosecond X-ray diffraction data and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics structural models},
author = {Wang, Jimin and Askerka, Mikhail and Brudvig, Gary W. and Batista, Victor S.},
abstractNote = {Understanding structure–function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metal centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Lastly, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure–function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00626},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 12 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Jan 12 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00626

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  • Understanding structure–function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods. However, the interpretation of XFEL data from PSII intermediates is challenging because of the issues regarding data-processing, uncertainty on the precise positions of light oxygen atoms next to heavy metalmore » centers, and different kinetics of the S-state transition in microcrystals compared to solution. Lastly, we summarize recent advances and outstanding challenges in PSII structure–function determination with emphasis on the implementation of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques combined with isomorphous difference Fourier maps, direct methods, and high-resolution spectroscopy.« less
  • Efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation may open a way to produce energy from renewable solar power. In biology, generation of fuel due to water oxidation happens efficiently on an immense scale during the light reactions of photosynthesis. To oxidize water, photosynthetic organisms have evolved a highly conserved protein complex, Photosystem II. Within that complex, water oxidation happens at the CaMn 4O 5 inorganic catalytic cluster, the so-called oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which cycles through storage “S” states as it accumulates oxidizing equivalents and produces molecular oxygen. In recent years, there has been significant progress in understanding the OEC as it evolves throughmore » the catalytic cycle. Studies have combined conventional and femtosecond X-ray crystallography with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/ MM) methods and have addressed changes in protonation states of μ-oxo bridges and the coordination of substrate water through the analysis of ammonia binding as a chemical analog of water. These advances are thought to be critical to understanding the catalytic cycle since protonation states regulate the relative stability of different redox states and the geometry of the OEC. Therefore, establishing the mechanism for substrate water binding and the nature of protonation/redox state transitions in the OEC is essential for understanding the catalytic cycle of O 2 evolution. The structure of the dark-stable S1 state has been a target for X-ray crystallography for the past 15 years. However, traditional Xray crystallography has been hampered by radiation-induced reduction of the OEC. Very recently, a revolutionary X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) technique was applied to PSII to reveal atomic positions at 1.95 Å without radiation damage, which brought us closer than ever to establishing the ultimate structure of the OEC in the S 1 state. However, the atom positions in this crystal structure are still not consistent with high-resolution EXAFS spectroscopy, partially due to the poorly resolved oxygen positions next to Mn centers and partial reduction due to extended dark adaptation of the sample. These inconsistencies led to the new models of the OEC with an alternative low oxidation state and raised questions on the protonation state of the cluster, especially the O5 μ-oxo bridge. This Account summarizes the most recent models of the OEC that emerged from QM/MM, EXAFS and femtosecond X-ray crystallography methods. When PSII in the S 1 state is exposed to light, the S 1 state is advanced to the higher oxidation states and eventually binds substrate water molecules. Identifying the substrate waters is of paramount importance for establishing the water-oxidation mechanism but is complicated by a large number of spectroscopically similar waters. Water analogues can, therefore, be helpful because they serve as spectroscopic markers that help to track the motion of the substrate waters. Due to a close structural and electronic similarity to water, ammonia has been of particular interest. We review three competing hypotheses on substrate water/ammonia binding and compile theoretical and experimental evidence to support them. Binding of ammonia as a sixth ligand to Mn4 during the S 1 → S 2 transition seems to satisfy most of the criteria, especially the most compelling recent EPR data on D1-D61A mutated PSII. Such a binding mode suggests delivery of water from the “narrow” channel through a “carousel” rearrangement of waters around Mn4 upon the S 2 → S 3 transition. An alternative hypothesis suggests water delivery through the “large” channel on the Ca side. However, both water delivery paths lead to a similar S 3 structure, seemingly reaching consensus on the nature of the last detectable S-state intermediate in the Kok cycle before O 2 evolution.« less
    Cited by 22
  • Efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation may open a way to produce energy from renewable solar power. In biology, generation of fuel due to water oxidation happens efficiently on an immense scale during the light reactions of photosynthesis. To oxidize water, photosynthetic organisms have evolved a highly conserved protein complex, Photosystem II. Within that complex, water oxidation happens at the CaMn 4O 5 inorganic catalytic cluster, the so-called oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which cycles through storage “S” states as it accumulates oxidizing equivalents and produces molecular oxygen. In recent years, there has been significant progress in understanding the OEC as it evolves throughmore » the catalytic cycle. Studies have combined conventional and femtosecond X-ray crystallography with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/ MM) methods and have addressed changes in protonation states of μ-oxo bridges and the coordination of substrate water through the analysis of ammonia binding as a chemical analog of water. These advances are thought to be critical to understanding the catalytic cycle since protonation states regulate the relative stability of different redox states and the geometry of the OEC. Therefore, establishing the mechanism for substrate water binding and the nature of protonation/redox state transitions in the OEC is essential for understanding the catalytic cycle of O 2 evolution. The structure of the dark-stable S1 state has been a target for X-ray crystallography for the past 15 years. However, traditional Xray crystallography has been hampered by radiation-induced reduction of the OEC. Very recently, a revolutionary X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) technique was applied to PSII to reveal atomic positions at 1.95 Å without radiation damage, which brought us closer than ever to establishing the ultimate structure of the OEC in the S 1 state. However, the atom positions in this crystal structure are still not consistent with high-resolution EXAFS spectroscopy, partially due to the poorly resolved oxygen positions next to Mn centers and partial reduction due to extended dark adaptation of the sample. These inconsistencies led to the new models of the OEC with an alternative low oxidation state and raised questions on the protonation state of the cluster, especially the O5 μ-oxo bridge. This Account summarizes the most recent models of the OEC that emerged from QM/MM, EXAFS and femtosecond X-ray crystallography methods. When PSII in the S 1 state is exposed to light, the S 1 state is advanced to the higher oxidation states and eventually binds substrate water molecules. Identifying the substrate waters is of paramount importance for establishing the water-oxidation mechanism but is complicated by a large number of spectroscopically similar waters. Water analogues can, therefore, be helpful because they serve as spectroscopic markers that help to track the motion of the substrate waters. Due to a close structural and electronic similarity to water, ammonia has been of particular interest. We review three competing hypotheses on substrate water/ammonia binding and compile theoretical and experimental evidence to support them. Binding of ammonia as a sixth ligand to Mn4 during the S 1 → S 2 transition seems to satisfy most of the criteria, especially the most compelling recent EPR data on D1-D61A mutated PSII. Such a binding mode suggests delivery of water from the “narrow” channel through a “carousel” rearrangement of waters around Mn4 upon the S 2 → S 3 transition. An alternative hypothesis suggests water delivery through the “large” channel on the Ca side. However, both water delivery paths lead to a similar S 3 structure, seemingly reaching consensus on the nature of the last detectable S-state intermediate in the Kok cycle before O 2 evolution.« less