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Title: Densification of biomass using a pilot scale flat ring roller pellet mill

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fuel Processing Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 148; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-05 09:08:57; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-3820
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Citation Formats

Jackson, Joshua, Turner, Aaron, Mark, Tyler, and Montross, Michael. Densification of biomass using a pilot scale flat ring roller pellet mill. Netherlands: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.024.
Jackson, Joshua, Turner, Aaron, Mark, Tyler, & Montross, Michael. Densification of biomass using a pilot scale flat ring roller pellet mill. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.024.
Jackson, Joshua, Turner, Aaron, Mark, Tyler, and Montross, Michael. 2016. "Densification of biomass using a pilot scale flat ring roller pellet mill". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.024.
title = {Densification of biomass using a pilot scale flat ring roller pellet mill},
author = {Jackson, Joshua and Turner, Aaron and Mark, Tyler and Montross, Michael},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.024},
journal = {Fuel Processing Technology},
number = C,
volume = 148,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2016,
month = 7

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.fuproc.2016.02.024

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Cited by: 2works
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  • In the present study a Box–Behnken experimental design was used to understand the effect of the moisture content of lodgepole pine grind (33–39%, w.b.), die speed (40–60 Hz) and preheating temperature (30–90 °C) on the pellet quality and specific energy consumption. The partially dried pellets produced had high-moisture content in the range of 19–28% (w.b.), and were further dried to <9% (w.b.) in a mechanical oven set at 70 °C for 3 h. Dried pellets were further evaluated for pellet moisture content, unit, bulk, tapped density, and durability. Response surface models developed for the product properties have adequately described themore » process based on coefficient of determination values. Surface plots developed indicated higher unit, bulk, and tapped density (1050, 520, 560 kg/m 3) are achievable at 33–35% (w.b.) moisture content of the lodgepole pine grind, die speed of 60 Hz and preheating temperature of 30–60 °C. Higher moisture content of 39% (w.b) reduced unit, bulk, and tapped density to <912, 396, and 452 kg/m 3. Higher durability values of >95% were obtained at 33–35% (w.b.) at lower preheating temperatures of 30–50 °C and higher die speed of >50 Hz. At 33% (w.b.) moisture content of the lodgepole pine grind, preheating temperature of 90 °C, and die speed of 60 Hz, the observed specific energy consumption was <116 kW h/ton. As a result, scanning electron microscope studies indicated that lignin crosslinking is the primary reason for binding of the lodgepole pine grind at high-moisture content.« less
  • Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable energy resources for energy production. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for ground lignocellulosic biomass like corn stover limit its operation for energy purposes. The common drawbacks are inefficient transportation, a bigger storage foot print, and handling problems. Densification of biomass using pellet mill helps to overcome these limitations. This study helps to understand the effect of binder on high moisture biomass with a focus on the quality (density and durability), the pelleting efficiency and the specific energy consumption of its pelleting process. Raw corn stover was pelleted at high moisture ofmore » 33% (w.b.) at both varying preheating temperatures and binder percentage. The die speed of the pellet mill was set at 60Hz. The pellets produced were analyzed and showed higher moisture content. They were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70°C for 3-4 hr bringing the pellet moisture to <9%. The dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties like unit, bulk and tapped density, and durability. Furthermore, the results indicated increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved the physical properties of the pellets and reduced the specific energy consumption. Higher binder addition of 4% reduced the feedstock moisture loss during pelleting to <4%, which can be due reduced residence time of the material in the die. On the other hand the physical properties like density and durability improved significantly with binder addition. At 4% binder and 33% feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed were >510 kg/m3 and >98% and the percent fines generation has reduced to <3%. Also at these conditions the specific energy consumption was reduced by about 30-40% compared no binder pelleting test.« less
  • The quality and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the biomass pellets produced depend upon pelleting process conditions. The present study includes understanding the effect of feedstock moisture in the range of 28–38% (wet basis [w.b.]) and preheating in the range of 30–110°C at two die speeds of 40 and 60 Hz on the physical properties and SEC. A flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die was used in the present study. The physical properties of pellets such as moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, and expansion ratio and SEC of the pelleting process are measured.more » The results indicate that the pellets produced have durability values in the range of 87–98%, and unit bulk and tapped density in the range of 670–1100, 375–575, and 420–620 kg/m³. Increasing the feedstock moisture content from 33% to 38% (w.b) decreased the unit, bulk and tapped density by about 30–40%. Increasing feedstock moisture content increased the expansion ratio and decreased the density values. A higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and higher preheating temperature of 110°C resulted in lower density and a higher expansion ratio, which can be attributed to flash off of moisture as the material extrudes out of the die. The SEC was in the range of 75–275 kWh/ton. Higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and a lower die speed of 40 Hz increased the SEC, whereas lower to medium preheating temperature (30–70°C), medium feedstock moisture content of 33% (w.b.), and a higher die speed of 60 Hz minimized the SEC to <100 kWh/ton.« less
  • Ethanol is being considered as an attractive alternative transportation fuel for the future. One method of producing ethanol from lignocellulose involves reducing the size of biomass to smaller particles, and using acid or enzyme treatments to hydrolyze the biomass to sugars. The size-reduction step is necessary to eliminate mass- and heat-transfer limitations during the hydrolysis reactions. However, milling to small size consumes large amounts of energy, and reducing the energy usage is critical to the overall process economics. In this study, the energy requirements and size distribution for milling wood were measured for various pilot-scale size-reduction equipment. Hammer milling usedmore » less energy than disk milling, but produced particles with a larger-size distribution. Additionally, energy requirements were measured for shredding paper and switchgrass. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.« less