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Title: Ensemble of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Statistical Physics Approach

Abstract

Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL), e.g. air-conditioners and heaters, are by far the most wide-spread consumers of electricity. Normally the devices are calibrated to provide the so-called bang-bang control of temperature - changing from on to off , and vice versa, depending on temperature. Aggregation of a large group of similar devices into a statistical ensemble is considered, where the devices operate following the same dynamics subject to stochastic perturbations and randomized, Poisson on/off switching policy. We analyze, using theoretical and computational tools of statistical physics, how the ensemble relaxes to a stationary distribution and establish relation between the re- laxation and statistics of the probability flux, associated with devices' cycling in the mixed (discrete, switch on/off , and continuous, temperature) phase space. This allowed us to derive and analyze spec- trum of the non-equilibrium (detailed balance broken) statistical system. and uncover how switching policy affects oscillatory trend and speed of the relaxation. Relaxation of the ensemble is of a practical interest because it describes how the ensemble recovers from significant perturbations, e.g. forceful temporary switching o aimed at utilizing flexibility of the ensemble in providing "demand response" services relieving consumption temporarily to balance larger power grid. We discuss how themore » statistical analysis can guide further development of the emerging demand response technology.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skolkovo Inst. of Science and Technology, Moscow (Russia)
  2. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1340942
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-20283
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Citation Formats

Chertkov, Michael, and Chernyak, Vladimir. Ensemble of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Statistical Physics Approach. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1340942.
Chertkov, Michael, & Chernyak, Vladimir. Ensemble of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Statistical Physics Approach. United States. doi:10.2172/1340942.
Chertkov, Michael, and Chernyak, Vladimir. Tue . "Ensemble of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Statistical Physics Approach". United States. doi:10.2172/1340942. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340942.
@article{osti_1340942,
title = {Ensemble of Thermostatically Controlled Loads: Statistical Physics Approach},
author = {Chertkov, Michael and Chernyak, Vladimir},
abstractNote = {Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL), e.g. air-conditioners and heaters, are by far the most wide-spread consumers of electricity. Normally the devices are calibrated to provide the so-called bang-bang control of temperature - changing from on to off , and vice versa, depending on temperature. Aggregation of a large group of similar devices into a statistical ensemble is considered, where the devices operate following the same dynamics subject to stochastic perturbations and randomized, Poisson on/off switching policy. We analyze, using theoretical and computational tools of statistical physics, how the ensemble relaxes to a stationary distribution and establish relation between the re- laxation and statistics of the probability flux, associated with devices' cycling in the mixed (discrete, switch on/off , and continuous, temperature) phase space. This allowed us to derive and analyze spec- trum of the non-equilibrium (detailed balance broken) statistical system. and uncover how switching policy affects oscillatory trend and speed of the relaxation. Relaxation of the ensemble is of a practical interest because it describes how the ensemble recovers from significant perturbations, e.g. forceful temporary switching o aimed at utilizing flexibility of the ensemble in providing "demand response" services relieving consumption temporarily to balance larger power grid. We discuss how the statistical analysis can guide further development of the emerging demand response technology.},
doi = {10.2172/1340942},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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