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Title: Overview of nuclear fission - present experiments

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP) (NA-10)
OSTI Identifier:
1340908
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-20195
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 6th International Conference on fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei ; 2016-11-06 - 2016-11-12 ; Sanibel Island, Florida, United States
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Fission; Experiments; Neutrons; Gamma Rays; Fission Fragments; Fission Products

Citation Formats

Haight, Robert Cameron. Overview of nuclear fission - present experiments. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Haight, Robert Cameron. Overview of nuclear fission - present experiments. United States.
Haight, Robert Cameron. Wed . "Overview of nuclear fission - present experiments". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340908.
@article{osti_1340908,
title = {Overview of nuclear fission - present experiments},
author = {Haight, Robert Cameron},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 11 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 11 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
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  • Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.
  • General properties of nuclear fission are reviewed and related to our present knowledge of fission theory. For this purpose the basic reasons for the shape of the fission barriers are discussed and their consequences compared with experimental results on barrier shapes and structures. Special emphasis is put on the asymmetry of the fission barriers and mass-distributions and its relation to the shells of the nascent fragment clusters. Finally the problem of a dynamical description of fission and its relation to the question of viscosity is discussed. (auth)
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  • Five general areas of application for nuclear cross sections have been identified for benchmark testing by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG); thermal and fast reactors, shielding, dosimetry and fission product properties. For both thermal and fast reactors, benchmark experiments consist of measurements of integral reaction rates, reactivity coefficients and criticality in well defined, simple geometry, uniform composition assemblies. Thermal reactor benchmark experiments are carried out in spheres of heavy metal nitrate solutions and in H$sub 2$O and D$sub 2$O moderated lattices of uranium. Carefully specified experiments in large, fast, Zero-Power critical assemblies (e.g., ZPR-6-7, ZPPR-2) and in smallmore » uranium and plutonium metal spheres (e.g., Godiva, Jezebel) provide integral tests primarily for uranium and plutonium capture and fission cross sections and fission neutron properties in the energy range 0.1 keV to 10 MeV. Shielding benchmark experiments are characterized by a well defined neutron source, detectors having known absolute response functions and a simple source-detector geometry. Dosimetry benchmark experiments consist of integral reaction rate measurements in known neutron spectra. These experiments include measurements sensitive to low energy neutrons (e.g., $sup 10$B(n,$alpha$), $sup 197$Au(n,$gamma$) in thermal spectra) and to relatively high energy neutrons (e.g., $sup 238$U(n,f), $sup 239$Pu(n,f) in fission spectra). Benchmark experiments for fission products include integral measurements of capture rates and reactivity effects for individual fission product isotopes in typical reactor spectra (e.g., the CFRMF and STEK facilities) and measurements of fission product yields and decay properties, especially those decay modes relating to decay heat production. The results of all these benchmark experiments have been compared to calculations using the latest version of the Evaluated Neutron Data File, ENDF/B-IV. (auth)« less