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Title: Foamed Cement Interactions with CO 2

Abstract

Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO 2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO 2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO 2 mitigation choice. In a typical oil and gas well, cement is placed in the annulus between the steel casing and formation rock for both zonal isolation and casing support. The cement must have sufficient strength to secure the casing in the hole and withstand the stress of drilling, perforating, and fracturing (e.g. API, 1997, 2010 Worldwide Cementing Practices). As such, measuring the mechanical and properties of cement is an important step in predicting cement behavior under applied downhole stresses (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation is the prevention of fluids migrating to different zones outside of the casing and is strongly impacted by the permeability of themore » wellbore cement (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation depends on both the mechanical behavior and permeability (a physical property) of the cement (Mueller and Eid, 2006; Nelson, 2006). Long-term integrity of cement depends on the mechanical properties of the cement sheath, such as Young’s Modulus (Griffith et al., 2004). The cement sheath’s ability to withstand the stresses from changes in pressure and temperature is predominantly determined by the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and tensile strength. Any geochemical alteration may impact both the mechanical and physical properties of the cement, thus ultimately impacting the structural integrity of the wellbore. In this study, atmospheric foamed cements were generated using a neat cement and three foam qualities (volume of entrained gas in the cement) - 10%, 20%, and 30 % gas volume. The samples were immersed in a 0.25 M NaCl brine followed by the injection of supercritical CO 2 at 28.9 MPa and 50°C. Petrophysical properties were examined for representative samples using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CT scanning of representative samples across the range of reacted cements revealed macroscopic changes in structure due to brine/CO 2/cement interactions. The high foam quality samples resulted in more CO 2-saturated brine infiltrating radially deeper into the cement and thus were more susceptible to alteration. After 56 days of exposure, the 30% foam quality sample had the most reaction resulting in an alteration depth of 8.35 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 34.6 ± 0.2% reacted area and 5.76 ± 0.2% reacted pore space area. The neat sample on the other hand, had a reaction depth of 0.31 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 0.15 ± 0.08% reacted area and 0.57 ± 0.05% reacted pore area. Physical measurements of the exposed samples were consistent with this degree of alteration having 47.02% porosity and the highest permeability of 0.041 mD. These results indicate that the greater surface area provided by the increase of pore space in the higher quality foam coupled with carbonate diffusion reactions enabled greater alteration.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)
  2. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE)
  3. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)
  4. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
  5. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Carbon Storage Program
OSTI Identifier:
1340659
Report Number(s):
NETL-TRS-2-2017
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, and Kutchko, Barbara. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1340659.
Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, & Kutchko, Barbara. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2. United States. doi:10.2172/1340659.
Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, and Kutchko, Barbara. Mon . "Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2". United States. doi:10.2172/1340659. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340659.
@article{osti_1340659,
title = {Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2},
author = {Verba, Circe and Montross, Scott and Spaulding, Richard and Dalton, Laura and Crandall, Dustin and Moore, Jonathan and Glosser, Deborah and Huerta, Nicolas and Kutchko, Barbara},
abstractNote = {Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO2 mitigation choice. In a typical oil and gas well, cement is placed in the annulus between the steel casing and formation rock for both zonal isolation and casing support. The cement must have sufficient strength to secure the casing in the hole and withstand the stress of drilling, perforating, and fracturing (e.g. API, 1997, 2010 Worldwide Cementing Practices). As such, measuring the mechanical and properties of cement is an important step in predicting cement behavior under applied downhole stresses (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation is the prevention of fluids migrating to different zones outside of the casing and is strongly impacted by the permeability of the wellbore cement (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation depends on both the mechanical behavior and permeability (a physical property) of the cement (Mueller and Eid, 2006; Nelson, 2006). Long-term integrity of cement depends on the mechanical properties of the cement sheath, such as Young’s Modulus (Griffith et al., 2004). The cement sheath’s ability to withstand the stresses from changes in pressure and temperature is predominantly determined by the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and tensile strength. Any geochemical alteration may impact both the mechanical and physical properties of the cement, thus ultimately impacting the structural integrity of the wellbore. In this study, atmospheric foamed cements were generated using a neat cement and three foam qualities (volume of entrained gas in the cement) - 10%, 20%, and 30 % gas volume. The samples were immersed in a 0.25 M NaCl brine followed by the injection of supercritical CO2 at 28.9 MPa and 50°C. Petrophysical properties were examined for representative samples using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CT scanning of representative samples across the range of reacted cements revealed macroscopic changes in structure due to brine/CO2/cement interactions. The high foam quality samples resulted in more CO2-saturated brine infiltrating radially deeper into the cement and thus were more susceptible to alteration. After 56 days of exposure, the 30% foam quality sample had the most reaction resulting in an alteration depth of 8.35 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 34.6 ± 0.2% reacted area and 5.76 ± 0.2% reacted pore space area. The neat sample on the other hand, had a reaction depth of 0.31 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 0.15 ± 0.08% reacted area and 0.57 ± 0.05% reacted pore area. Physical measurements of the exposed samples were consistent with this degree of alteration having 47.02% porosity and the highest permeability of 0.041 mD. These results indicate that the greater surface area provided by the increase of pore space in the higher quality foam coupled with carbonate diffusion reactions enabled greater alteration.},
doi = {10.2172/1340659},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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