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Title: Foamed Cement Interactions with CO 2

Abstract

Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO 2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO 2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO 2 mitigation choice. In a typical oil and gas well, cement is placed in the annulus between the steel casing and formation rock for both zonal isolation and casing support. The cement must have sufficient strength to secure the casing in the hole and withstand the stress of drilling, perforating, and fracturing (e.g. API, 1997, 2010 Worldwide Cementing Practices). As such, measuring the mechanical and properties of cement is an important step in predicting cement behavior under applied downhole stresses (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation is the prevention of fluids migrating to different zones outside of the casing and is strongly impacted by the permeability of themore » wellbore cement (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation depends on both the mechanical behavior and permeability (a physical property) of the cement (Mueller and Eid, 2006; Nelson, 2006). Long-term integrity of cement depends on the mechanical properties of the cement sheath, such as Young’s Modulus (Griffith et al., 2004). The cement sheath’s ability to withstand the stresses from changes in pressure and temperature is predominantly determined by the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and tensile strength. Any geochemical alteration may impact both the mechanical and physical properties of the cement, thus ultimately impacting the structural integrity of the wellbore. In this study, atmospheric foamed cements were generated using a neat cement and three foam qualities (volume of entrained gas in the cement) - 10%, 20%, and 30 % gas volume. The samples were immersed in a 0.25 M NaCl brine followed by the injection of supercritical CO 2 at 28.9 MPa and 50°C. Petrophysical properties were examined for representative samples using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CT scanning of representative samples across the range of reacted cements revealed macroscopic changes in structure due to brine/CO 2/cement interactions. The high foam quality samples resulted in more CO 2-saturated brine infiltrating radially deeper into the cement and thus were more susceptible to alteration. After 56 days of exposure, the 30% foam quality sample had the most reaction resulting in an alteration depth of 8.35 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 34.6 ± 0.2% reacted area and 5.76 ± 0.2% reacted pore space area. The neat sample on the other hand, had a reaction depth of 0.31 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 0.15 ± 0.08% reacted area and 0.57 ± 0.05% reacted pore area. Physical measurements of the exposed samples were consistent with this degree of alteration having 47.02% porosity and the highest permeability of 0.041 mD. These results indicate that the greater surface area provided by the increase of pore space in the higher quality foam coupled with carbonate diffusion reactions enabled greater alteration.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)
  2. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE)
  3. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)
  4. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
  5. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Carbon Storage Program
OSTI Identifier:
1340659
Report Number(s):
NETL-TRS-2-2017
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, and Kutchko, Barbara. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1340659.
Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, & Kutchko, Barbara. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2. United States. doi:10.2172/1340659.
Verba, Circe, Montross, Scott, Spaulding, Richard, Dalton, Laura, Crandall, Dustin, Moore, Jonathan, Glosser, Deborah, Huerta, Nicolas, and Kutchko, Barbara. Mon . "Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2". United States. doi:10.2172/1340659. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340659.
@article{osti_1340659,
title = {Foamed Cement Interactions with CO2},
author = {Verba, Circe and Montross, Scott and Spaulding, Richard and Dalton, Laura and Crandall, Dustin and Moore, Jonathan and Glosser, Deborah and Huerta, Nicolas and Kutchko, Barbara},
abstractNote = {Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO2 mitigation choice. In a typical oil and gas well, cement is placed in the annulus between the steel casing and formation rock for both zonal isolation and casing support. The cement must have sufficient strength to secure the casing in the hole and withstand the stress of drilling, perforating, and fracturing (e.g. API, 1997, 2010 Worldwide Cementing Practices). As such, measuring the mechanical and properties of cement is an important step in predicting cement behavior under applied downhole stresses (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation is the prevention of fluids migrating to different zones outside of the casing and is strongly impacted by the permeability of the wellbore cement (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation depends on both the mechanical behavior and permeability (a physical property) of the cement (Mueller and Eid, 2006; Nelson, 2006). Long-term integrity of cement depends on the mechanical properties of the cement sheath, such as Young’s Modulus (Griffith et al., 2004). The cement sheath’s ability to withstand the stresses from changes in pressure and temperature is predominantly determined by the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and tensile strength. Any geochemical alteration may impact both the mechanical and physical properties of the cement, thus ultimately impacting the structural integrity of the wellbore. In this study, atmospheric foamed cements were generated using a neat cement and three foam qualities (volume of entrained gas in the cement) - 10%, 20%, and 30 % gas volume. The samples were immersed in a 0.25 M NaCl brine followed by the injection of supercritical CO2 at 28.9 MPa and 50°C. Petrophysical properties were examined for representative samples using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CT scanning of representative samples across the range of reacted cements revealed macroscopic changes in structure due to brine/CO2/cement interactions. The high foam quality samples resulted in more CO2-saturated brine infiltrating radially deeper into the cement and thus were more susceptible to alteration. After 56 days of exposure, the 30% foam quality sample had the most reaction resulting in an alteration depth of 8.35 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 34.6 ± 0.2% reacted area and 5.76 ± 0.2% reacted pore space area. The neat sample on the other hand, had a reaction depth of 0.31 ± 0.13 mm with a calculated 0.15 ± 0.08% reacted area and 0.57 ± 0.05% reacted pore area. Physical measurements of the exposed samples were consistent with this degree of alteration having 47.02% porosity and the highest permeability of 0.041 mD. These results indicate that the greater surface area provided by the increase of pore space in the higher quality foam coupled with carbonate diffusion reactions enabled greater alteration.},
doi = {10.2172/1340659},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO 2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO 2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO 2 mitigation choice.
  • This report analyzes the dynamics and mechanisms of the interactions of carbonated brine with hydrated Portland cement. The analysis is based on a recent set of comprehensive reactive-transport simulations, and it relies heavily on the synthesis of the body of work on wellbore integrity that we have conducted for the Carbon Storage Program over the past decade.
  • This document presents global and national estimates of annual carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing for 1950--1986. These estimates are based on statistics from the Untied Nations and the US Bureau of Mines. These estimates and supporting data are available free-of-charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of this document and magnetic tapes containing machine-readable data files, a descriptive file, and computer codes to access the data files. This document summarizes the emission estimates in tabular and graphical form, describes the calculations, describes howmore » the data were processed, defines limitations of the data and estimates, describes the information on the tapes, and provides reprints of pertinent literature. The CO/sub 2/ emission estimates show that the annual amount of CO/sub 2/ produced globally from fossil fuel burning and cement production has risen significantly since 1950. 18 refs., 3 figs., 16 tabs.« less
  • In previous publications, the authors reported using weakly bonded complexes as precursors in studies involving oriented and aligned reactants. This method provides a unique environment wherein the V, R wave functions and equilibrium geometry determine the initial positions and momenta of the nuclei in the reaction which follows photoexcitation, thereby allowing geometrically constrained entrance channels to be explored. In these studies of precursor geometry-limited (PGL) reactions, initial excitation was to a repulsive HBr curve and the H-atom reacted with the nearby moiety in the binary complex. In all cases CO/sub 2/, OCS, and H(D) reactants, reactions proceeded from predominantly end-onmore » rather than broadside approaches. It was pointed out that different complexes could provide different entrance channel approaches and that all of the nearby species should be taken into account in data analyses. In this Letter, results obtained with CO/sub 2/H/sub 2/S complexes are reported.« less
  • China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279more » TWh. The CO 2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO 2 and the CO 2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO 2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO 2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO 2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.« less