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Title: Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses

Abstract

X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Here in this paper we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [3];  [3];  [8];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [9];  [3];  [3]
  1. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Jan Kochanowski Univ., Kielce (Poland). Inst. of Physics
  2. Univ. of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland)
  3. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
  4. Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry; Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Physical Chemistry
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); National Science Foundation BioXFEL Science and Technology Center (STC), Buffalo, NY (United States)
  6. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
  7. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  8. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Chemical and Bioengineering
  9. Jan Kochanowski Univ., Kielce (Poland). Inst. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); National Science Centre, Poland
OSTI Identifier:
1340403
Report Number(s):
BNL-113187-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704; AC02-76SF00515; 135040; 2015/19/B/ST2/00931
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Szlachetko, Jakub, Hoszowska, Joanna, Dousse, Jean-Claude, Nachtegaal, Maarten, Błachucki, Wojciech, Kayser, Yves, Sà, Jacinto, Messerschmidt, Marc, Boutet, Sebastien, Williams, Garth J., David, Christian, Smolentsev, Grigory, van Bokhoven, Jeroen A., Patterson, Bruce D., Penfold, Thomas J., Knopp, Gregor, Pajek, Marek, Abela, Rafael, and Milne, Christopher J. Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep33292.
Szlachetko, Jakub, Hoszowska, Joanna, Dousse, Jean-Claude, Nachtegaal, Maarten, Błachucki, Wojciech, Kayser, Yves, Sà, Jacinto, Messerschmidt, Marc, Boutet, Sebastien, Williams, Garth J., David, Christian, Smolentsev, Grigory, van Bokhoven, Jeroen A., Patterson, Bruce D., Penfold, Thomas J., Knopp, Gregor, Pajek, Marek, Abela, Rafael, & Milne, Christopher J. Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses. United States. doi:10.1038/srep33292.
Szlachetko, Jakub, Hoszowska, Joanna, Dousse, Jean-Claude, Nachtegaal, Maarten, Błachucki, Wojciech, Kayser, Yves, Sà, Jacinto, Messerschmidt, Marc, Boutet, Sebastien, Williams, Garth J., David, Christian, Smolentsev, Grigory, van Bokhoven, Jeroen A., Patterson, Bruce D., Penfold, Thomas J., Knopp, Gregor, Pajek, Marek, Abela, Rafael, and Milne, Christopher J. 2016. "Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses". United States. doi:10.1038/srep33292. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340403.
@article{osti_1340403,
title = {Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses},
author = {Szlachetko, Jakub and Hoszowska, Joanna and Dousse, Jean-Claude and Nachtegaal, Maarten and Błachucki, Wojciech and Kayser, Yves and Sà, Jacinto and Messerschmidt, Marc and Boutet, Sebastien and Williams, Garth J. and David, Christian and Smolentsev, Grigory and van Bokhoven, Jeroen A. and Patterson, Bruce D. and Penfold, Thomas J. and Knopp, Gregor and Pajek, Marek and Abela, Rafael and Milne, Christopher J.},
abstractNote = {X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Here in this paper we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state.},
doi = {10.1038/srep33292},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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