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Title: Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe 36Ni 18Mn 33Al 13) 100–xTi x high entropy alloys

Abstract

The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe 36Ni 18Mn 33Al 13Ti x with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σ y, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe 36Ni 18Mn 33Al 13Ti 4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22), Scientific User Facilities Division; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1340293
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1324378; OSTI ID: 1395832
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-07ER46392
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Intermetallics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0966-9795
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Hall-Petch-type relationship; high-entropy alloys; mechanical properties; microstructure

Citation Formats

Wang, Zhangwei, Wu, Margaret, Cai, Zhonghou, Chen, Si, and Baker, Ian. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.intermet.2016.06.001.
Wang, Zhangwei, Wu, Margaret, Cai, Zhonghou, Chen, Si, & Baker, Ian. Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys. United States. doi:10.1016/j.intermet.2016.06.001.
Wang, Zhangwei, Wu, Margaret, Cai, Zhonghou, Chen, Si, and Baker, Ian. Mon . "Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys". United States. doi:10.1016/j.intermet.2016.06.001. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340293.
@article{osti_1340293,
title = {Effect of Ti content on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of (Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13)100–xTix high entropy alloys},
author = {Wang, Zhangwei and Wu, Margaret and Cai, Zhonghou and Chen, Si and Baker, Ian},
abstractNote = {The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 μm for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength,σy, from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongation to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in σy to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.},
doi = {10.1016/j.intermet.2016.06.001},
journal = {Intermetallics},
number = C,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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Cited by: 5works
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  • The microstructure and mechanical properties studies of a series of two-phase f.c.c./B2 (ordered b.c.c.) lamellar-structured, high entropy alloys (HEA) Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Tix. with x up to 6 at. % Ti have been investigated. X-ray microanalysis in a TEM showed that the Ti resided mostly in the B2 phase. The lamellar spacing decreased significantly with increasing Ti content from 1.56 mu m for the undoped alloy to 155 nm with an addition of 4 at. % Ti, leading to a sharp increase in room-temperature yield strength, sigma(y), from 270 MPa to 953 MPa, but with a concomitant decrease in ductility from 22% elongationmore » to 2.3%. Annealing at 1173 K for 20 h greatly increased the lamellar spacing of Fe36Ni18Mn33Al13Ti4 to 577 nm, producing a corresponding decrease in sigma(y) to 511 MPa. The yield strengths of all the doped alloys decreased significantly when tensile tested at 973 K with a concomitant increase in ductility due to softening of the B2 phase. The fracture mode changed from cleavage at room temperature to a ductile dimple-type rupture at 973 K. The results are discussed in terms of the Hall-Petch-type relationship.« less
  • A systematic study of the effects of up to 1.1 at. % carbon on the mechanical properties and evolution of the dislocation substructure in a series of a high entropy alloys (HEA) based on Fe 40.4Ni 11.3Mn 34.8Al 7.5Cr 6 is presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to show that all the alloys are single-phase f.c.c. random solid solutions. The lattice constant, determined from synchrotron XRD measurements, increases linearly with increasing carbon concentration, which leads to a linear relationship between the yield strength and the carbon concentration. The dislocation substructures,more » as determined by a TEM, show a transition from wavy slip to planar slip and, at higher strains, and from cell-forming structure (dislocations cells, cell blocks and dense dislocation walls) to non-cell forming structure (Taylor lattice, microbands and domain boundaries) with the addition of carbon, features related to the increase in lattice friction stress. The stacking fault energy (measured via weak-beam imaging of the separation of dislocation partials) decreases with increasing carbon content, which also contributes to the transition from wavy slip to planar slip. The formation of non-cell forming structure induced by carbon leads to a high degree of strain hardening and a substantial increase in the ultimate tensile strength. In conclusion, the consequent postponement of necking due to the high strain hardening, along with the plasticity accommodation arising from the formation of microbands and domain boundaries, result in an increase of ductility due to the carbon addition.« less
  • We investigated the effects of cold rolling followed by annealing on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution of undoped and 1.1 at. % carbon-doped Fe 40.4Ni 11.3Mn 34.8Al 7.5Cr 6 high entropy alloys (HEAs). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) were employed to characterize the microstructures. The as-cast HEAs were coarse-grained and single phase f.c.c., whereas the thermo-mechanical treatment caused recrystallization (to fine grain sizes) and precipitation (a B2 phase for the undoped HEA; and a B2 phase, and M 23C 6 and M 7C 3 carbides for the C-dopedmore » HEA). Carbon, which was found to have segregated to the grain boundaries using APT, retarded recrystallization. The reduction in grain size resulted in a sharp increase in strength, while the precipitation, which produced only a small increase in strength, probably accounted for the small decrease in ductility for both undoped and C-doped HEAs. For both undoped and C-doped HEAs, the smaller grain-sized material initially exhibited higher strain hardening than the coarse-grained material but showed a much lower strain hardening at large tensile strains. Wavy slip in the undoped HEAs and planar slip in C-doped HEAs were found at the early stages of deformation irrespective of grain size. At higher strains, dislocation cell structures formed in the 19 μm grain-sized undoped HEA, while microbands formed in the 23 μm grain-sized C-doped HEA. Conversely, localized dislocation clusters were found in both HEAs at the finest grain sizes (5 μm). The inhibition of grain subdivision by the grain boundaries and precipitates lead to the transformation from regular dislocation configurations consisting of dislocation-cells and microbands to irregular dislocation configurations consisting of localized dislocation clusters, which further account for the decrease in ductility. Our investigation of the formation mechanism and strain hardening of dislocation cells and microbands could benefit future structural material design.« less
  • In this paper, As-cast Fe 28Ni 18Mn 33Al 21, which consists of aligned, 50 nm, (Ni, Al)-rich B2, and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases, was annealed at a variety of temperatures up to 1423 K and the microstructure and mechanical properties were examined. It was shown that the as-cast microstructure arises from a eutectoid transformation at ~1300 K. Annealing at temperatures ≤1073 K produces β-Mn-structured precipitates and hardness values up to 816 HV, while annealing at temperatures >1073 K leads to dramatic coarsening of the two-phase B2/f.c.c. microstructure (up to 5.5 µm after 50 h at 1273 K), but does notmore » lead to β-Mn precipitation. Interestingly, annealing at temperatures >1073 K delays the onset of β-Mn precipitation during subsequent anneals at lower temperatures. Coarsening the B2/f.c.c. lamellar structure by annealing at higher temperatures softens it and leads to increases in ductility from fracture before yield to ~8 % elongation. Finally, the presence of β-Mn precipitates makes the very fine, brittle B2/f.c.c. microstructures even more brittle, but significant ductility (8.4 % elongation) is possible even with β-Mn precipitates present if the B2/f.c.c. matrix is coarse and, hence, more ductile.« less