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Title: The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves

Abstract

Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form amore » molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded microstructure. However, annealing the samples led to quick recovery in hardness as evidenced by a drop in Vickers hardness of 20%. Hot rolling was performed at 650 and 800°C. The hot-rolling mill loads (load separation force) were approximately 40 to 50% less than the cold-rolling for the same reduction and thickness. It was observed that hot rolling the samples with 50% or more reduction in thickness were responsible for dynamic recrystallization in the hot-rolled samples and led to grain refinement. Unlike the cold-rolled samples, the hot-rolled samples did not fracture the carbides and appeared to heal the casting defects. The recovery phenomenon was similar to the cold-rolled samples above the eutectoid temperatures, but owing to the refined grain size, the precipitation of the lamellar phase was far more rapid in these samples and the hardness increased more rapidly than in the cold rolled sample when heated below the eutectoid temperature. The data generated from these rolling efforts has been used to make the process modeling efforts more robust and applicable to all USHPRR partner rolling mills. The flow stress for cold rolling the samples was determined to be between 170-190 ksi, with frictional forces between 0.2 and 0.4 for the PNNL mill. The measured roll separation forces and those simulated using finite element methods for hot and cold rolling for the PNNL rolling mill were in good agreement.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1339909
Report Number(s):
PNNL-25781
DN3001010
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS

Citation Formats

Joshi, Vineet V., Paxton, Dean M., Lavender, Curt A., and Burkes, Douglas. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1339909.
Joshi, Vineet V., Paxton, Dean M., Lavender, Curt A., & Burkes, Douglas. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves. United States. doi:10.2172/1339909.
Joshi, Vineet V., Paxton, Dean M., Lavender, Curt A., and Burkes, Douglas. 2016. "The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves". United States. doi:10.2172/1339909. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1339909.
@article{osti_1339909,
title = {The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves},
author = {Joshi, Vineet V. and Paxton, Dean M. and Lavender, Curt A. and Burkes, Douglas},
abstractNote = {Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form a molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded microstructure. However, annealing the samples led to quick recovery in hardness as evidenced by a drop in Vickers hardness of 20%. Hot rolling was performed at 650 and 800°C. The hot-rolling mill loads (load separation force) were approximately 40 to 50% less than the cold-rolling for the same reduction and thickness. It was observed that hot rolling the samples with 50% or more reduction in thickness were responsible for dynamic recrystallization in the hot-rolled samples and led to grain refinement. Unlike the cold-rolled samples, the hot-rolled samples did not fracture the carbides and appeared to heal the casting defects. The recovery phenomenon was similar to the cold-rolled samples above the eutectoid temperatures, but owing to the refined grain size, the precipitation of the lamellar phase was far more rapid in these samples and the hardness increased more rapidly than in the cold rolled sample when heated below the eutectoid temperature. The data generated from these rolling efforts has been used to make the process modeling efforts more robust and applicable to all USHPRR partner rolling mills. The flow stress for cold rolling the samples was determined to be between 170-190 ksi, with frictional forces between 0.2 and 0.4 for the PNNL mill. The measured roll separation forces and those simulated using finite element methods for hot and cold rolling for the PNNL rolling mill were in good agreement.},
doi = {10.2172/1339909},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

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  • Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.
  • This report covers the examination of 13 samples of rolled plates from three separate castings of uranium, alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) which were sent from the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).
  • Previous numerical studies of Sylgard filled with glass microballoons (GMB) have relied on various microstructure idealizations to achieve a large range of volume fractions with high mesh quality. This study investigates how different microstructure idealizations and constraints affect the apparent homogenized elastic constants in the virgin state of the material, in which all GMBs are intact and perfectly bonded to the Sylgard matrix, and in the fully damaged state of the material in which all GMBs are destroyed. In the latter state, the material behaves as an elastomeric foam. Four microstructure idealizations are considered relating to how GMBs are packedmore » into a representative volume element (RVE): (1) no boundary penetration nor GMB-GMB overlap, (2) GMB-GMB overlap, (3) boundary penetration, and (4) boundary penetration and GMB-GMB overlap. First order computational homogenization with kinematically uniform displacement boundary conditions (KUBCs) was employed to determine the homogenized (apparent) bulk and shear moduli for the four microstructure idealizations in the intact and fully broken GMB material states. It was found that boundary penetration has a significant effect on the shear modulus for microstructures with intact GMBs, but that neither boundary penetration nor GMB overlap have a significant effect on homogenized properties for microstructures with fully broken GMBs. The primary conclusion of the study is that future investigations into Sylgard/GMB micromechanics should either force GMBs to stay within the RVE fully and/or use periodic BCs (PBCs) to eliminate the boundary penetration issues. The implementation of PBCs requires the improvement of existing tools in Sandia’s Sierra/SM code.« less
  • The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield.more » This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.« less
  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participated in a U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Industrial Technology sponsored research project 'Development of a Rolling Process Design Tool for Use in Improving Hot Roll Slab Recovery', as a Cooperative Agreement TC-02028 with the Alcoa Technical Center (ATC). The objective of the joint project with Alcoa is to develop a numerical modeling capability to optimize the hot rolling process used to produce aluminum plate. Product lost in the rolling process and subsequent recycling, wastes resources consumed in the energy-intensive steps of remelting and reprocessing the ingot. The modeling capability developed by project partners willmore » be used to produce plate more efficiently and with reduced product loss.« less