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Title: Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability

Abstract

Two 150-year pre-industrial simulations with and without interactive sea salt emissions from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) are performed to quantify the interactions between sea salt emissions and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Variations in sea salt emissions over the tropical Pacific Ocean are affected by changing wind speed associated with ENSO variability. ENSO-induced interannual variations in sea salt emissions result in decreasing (increasing) aerosol optical depth (AOD) by 0.03 over the equatorial central-eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño events compared to those during La Niña events. These changes in AOD further increase (decrease) radiative fluxes into the atmosphere by +0.2 W m -2 (-0.4 W m -2) over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific. Thereby, sea surface temperature increases (decreases) by 0.2–0.4 K over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño compared to La Niña events and enhances ENSO variability by 10%. The increase in ENSO amplitude is a result of systematic heating (cooling) during the warm (cold) phase, of ENSO in the eastern Pacific. Interannual variations in sea salt emissions then produce the anomalous ascent (subsidence) over the equatorial eastern (western) Pacific between El Niño and La Niña events, which is a result of heating anomalies.more » Due to variations in sea salt emissions, the convective precipitation is enhanced by 0.6–1.2 mm day -1 over the tropical central-eastern Pacific Ocean and weakened by 0.9–1.5 mm day -1 over the Maritime Continent during El Niño compared to La Niña events, enhancing the precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1339881
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-120633
Journal ID: ISSN 0894-8755; KP1703010
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0894-8755
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Community Earth System Model (CESM); El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO); aerosol optical depth (AOD)

Citation Formats

Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Lamjiri, Maryam A., Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, and Ghan, Steven J.. Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0237.1.
Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Lamjiri, Maryam A., Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, & Ghan, Steven J.. Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability. United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0237.1
Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Lamjiri, Maryam A., Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, and Ghan, Steven J.. Tue . "Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability". United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0237.1.
@article{osti_1339881,
title = {Changes in Sea Salt Emissions Enhance ENSO Variability},
author = {Yang, Yang and Russell, Lynn M. and Lou, Sijia and Lamjiri, Maryam A. and Liu, Ying and Singh, Balwinder and Ghan, Steven J.},
abstractNote = {Two 150-year pre-industrial simulations with and without interactive sea salt emissions from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) are performed to quantify the interactions between sea salt emissions and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Variations in sea salt emissions over the tropical Pacific Ocean are affected by changing wind speed associated with ENSO variability. ENSO-induced interannual variations in sea salt emissions result in decreasing (increasing) aerosol optical depth (AOD) by 0.03 over the equatorial central-eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño events compared to those during La Niña events. These changes in AOD further increase (decrease) radiative fluxes into the atmosphere by +0.2 W m-2 (-0.4 W m-2) over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific. Thereby, sea surface temperature increases (decreases) by 0.2–0.4 K over the tropical eastern (western) Pacific Ocean during El Niño compared to La Niña events and enhances ENSO variability by 10%. The increase in ENSO amplitude is a result of systematic heating (cooling) during the warm (cold) phase, of ENSO in the eastern Pacific. Interannual variations in sea salt emissions then produce the anomalous ascent (subsidence) over the equatorial eastern (western) Pacific between El Niño and La Niña events, which is a result of heating anomalies. Due to variations in sea salt emissions, the convective precipitation is enhanced by 0.6–1.2 mm day-1 over the tropical central-eastern Pacific Ocean and weakened by 0.9–1.5 mm day-1 over the Maritime Continent during El Niño compared to La Niña events, enhancing the precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific.},
doi = {10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0237.1},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1339881}, journal = {Journal of Climate},
issn = {0894-8755},
number = 23,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}