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Title: Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel

Abstract

White etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as a dominant mode of premature failure within wind turbine gearbox bearings. Though WECs have been reported in the field for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, and the process by which this failure culminates, are both highly debated. In previously published work, the generation of WECs on a benchtop scale was linked to sliding at the surface of the test sample, it was also postulated that the generation of WECs was dependent on the cumulative energy that had been applied to the sample over the entirety of the test. In this paper, a three ring on roller bench top test rig is used to systematically alter the cumulative energy that a sample experiences through changes in normal load, sliding, and run time, in an attempt to correlate cumulative energy with the formation of WECs. It was determined that, in the current test setup, the presence of WECs can be predicted by this energy criterion. The authors then used this information to study the process by which WECs initiate. Lastly, it was found that, under the current testing conditions, the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of amore » crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white etching microstructure.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States); Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1339464
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Tribology Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 62; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1023-8883
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 17 WIND ENERGY; Bearing failures; Microstructural alterations; White etching cracks; Wind turbine gearbox bearings

Citation Formats

Gould, Benjamin, and Greco, Aaron. Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1007/s11249-016-0673-z.
Gould, Benjamin, & Greco, Aaron. Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel. United States. doi:10.1007/s11249-016-0673-z.
Gould, Benjamin, and Greco, Aaron. Fri . "Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel". United States. doi:10.1007/s11249-016-0673-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1339464.
@article{osti_1339464,
title = {Investigating the process of white etching crack initiation in bearing steel},
author = {Gould, Benjamin and Greco, Aaron},
abstractNote = {White etching cracks (WECs) have been identified as a dominant mode of premature failure within wind turbine gearbox bearings. Though WECs have been reported in the field for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, and the process by which this failure culminates, are both highly debated. In previously published work, the generation of WECs on a benchtop scale was linked to sliding at the surface of the test sample, it was also postulated that the generation of WECs was dependent on the cumulative energy that had been applied to the sample over the entirety of the test. In this paper, a three ring on roller bench top test rig is used to systematically alter the cumulative energy that a sample experiences through changes in normal load, sliding, and run time, in an attempt to correlate cumulative energy with the formation of WECs. It was determined that, in the current test setup, the presence of WECs can be predicted by this energy criterion. The authors then used this information to study the process by which WECs initiate. Lastly, it was found that, under the current testing conditions, the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of a crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white etching microstructure.},
doi = {10.1007/s11249-016-0673-z},
journal = {Tribology Letters},
issn = {1023-8883},
number = 2,
volume = 62,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}