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Title: Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes

Abstract

The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO 2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use change only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO 2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO 2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policymore » making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1339412
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Ecohydrology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0584
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; North America east coast; land-use change; climate change; atmospheric CO2 elevation; evapotranspiration (ET); Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM)

Citation Formats

Yang, Qichun, Tian, Hanqin, Li, Xia, Tao, Bo, Ren, Wei, Chen, Guangsheng, Lu, Chaoqun, Yang, Jia, Pan, Shufen, Banger, Kamaljit, and Zhang, Bowen. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1002/eco.1538.
Yang, Qichun, Tian, Hanqin, Li, Xia, Tao, Bo, Ren, Wei, Chen, Guangsheng, Lu, Chaoqun, Yang, Jia, Pan, Shufen, Banger, Kamaljit, & Zhang, Bowen. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes. United States. doi:10.1002/eco.1538.
Yang, Qichun, Tian, Hanqin, Li, Xia, Tao, Bo, Ren, Wei, Chen, Guangsheng, Lu, Chaoqun, Yang, Jia, Pan, Shufen, Banger, Kamaljit, and Zhang, Bowen. Fri . "Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes". United States. doi:10.1002/eco.1538. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1339412.
@article{osti_1339412,
title = {Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes},
author = {Yang, Qichun and Tian, Hanqin and Li, Xia and Tao, Bo and Ren, Wei and Chen, Guangsheng and Lu, Chaoqun and Yang, Jia and Pan, Shufen and Banger, Kamaljit and Zhang, Bowen},
abstractNote = {The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use change only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policy making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.},
doi = {10.1002/eco.1538},
journal = {Ecohydrology},
number = 4,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Fri Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

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Cited by: 12works
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  • Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Comparedmore » to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.« less
  • In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period of 1982-2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates derived from the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance towers using the model tree ensembles (MTE) approach. We find that climate trends and variability dominate predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, andmore » functions as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate change and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. For example, the aerosol deposition contribution is the third-most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact on ET trend over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use and land cover change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.« less
  • Atmospherically adjusted coastal sea level observations (ASL) and wind measurements at stations along the east coast of North America from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Eddy Point, Nova Scotia, for a 6-month winter period were used to study the spatial structure of ASL and wind stress on the continental shelf and to determine the low-frequency response of ASL to wind forcing ASL and wind stress were coherent over distances of 1300 km for motions with periods between 60 and 600 hours. Northward movement of storm systems and of the associated ASL response was observed for stations north of Cape May,more » New Jersey. South of Cape May the phase of ASL suggested southward movement of pressure disturbances. Londshore wind accounted for 55% of ASL energy and led ASL by 8--12 hours. Cross-shore winds were generally not coherent with ASL. In the MIddle Atlantic Bight (MAB), sea level response was 17 cm for a 1 dyn cm/sup -2/ longshore wind and symmetric in the longshore wind stress directions. In contrast, from Nantucket north, sea level response to longshore wind stress was weaker (9 cm for a 1 dyn cm/sup -2/ wind to the northeast). The response for wind to the northeast was twice as large as the response for wind stress toward the southwest. If coastal winds were representative of winds over the shelf, the observations imply that the wind-driven longshelf geostrophic currents were larger for unit wind stress in the MAB than in the Georges Bank-Scotian Shelf region. The regional change in ASL response may be due to the large semidiurnal tidal currents which occur in the Georges Bank region or to the rough topography on the Scotian Shelf, which effectively increases bottom friction. The regional change in ASL reponse suggests a divergence in longshore flow and an onshore flow on the shelf south of Nantucket for winds to the southwest. A low-frequency longshelf ASL slope was observed in the MAB that was incoherent with longshelf wind stress.« less
  • The central, west Florida, open-marine marsh system overlies a thin sediment veneer on top of limestone. Large embayments, like Wacassassa and Deadmans Bays, form where spring-fed rivers discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. The only major point source of sediment along the coast is the Suwannee River (SR). It forms a small river-dominated delta at its mouth and the large fresh water supply and relict topography have formed a series of shore-normal oyster reefs projecting seaward of the coast. Limestone bedrock outcropping on the river bed, as revealed by side-scan sonar collected from the mouth of the 3 main passesmore » to a point 8 km upriver, is jointed and may be similar to the regional jointing pattern reported to the south. The limestone becomes more prevalent upriver and is exposed along much of the southern pass. The thalweg of the main river is floored by large sand-waves, approximately 1 m in height and 50 m in length, which diminish in size as the river shallows towards its delta. Seaward of the oyster bioherms, side-scan sonagraphs show topographic highs mantled with small bedforms. High-resolution seismic and vibracores confirm that the sediment cover remains a thin veneer to 6 m depth (10 km offshore). Seaward of 6 m depth, limestone becomes exposed, with a series of alternating shore-normal sediment highs and limestone exposed lows occurring at 10 m depth (15 km offshore). Surface samples collected along the coast as well as in the river show higher percent organic values found at the mouth of the river and in the estuary to the south. The SR is a primary source of sediment for the section of coast from Cedar Key to Horseshoe Point. It controls morphology of the coast and distinguishes it from the sediment starved marshes to the south. The marsh coast is only now being intensively studied and an understanding of the SR's influence on sedimentation will aid future investigations of the marsh system.« less
  • One problem with developing continuous chronologies of paleoenvironmental change in northern areas of the Far East using 14C is the low organic content in lake sediments. However, Holocene age-models can be supplemented by widespread tephra deposits reported in the Magadan region. The best documented of these tephras has been correlated to the KO tephra from southern Kamchatka dated to 7600 BP. Though a key chronostratigraphic marker, no detailed compendium of the distribution of this tephra and its associated 14C dates has been available from sites in the northern Far East. We provide such a summary. Known locally as the Elikchanmore » tephra, lake cores indicate an ash fall that extended ~1800 km north of the Kamchatkan caldera with a ~500 km wide trajectory in the Magadan region. Other Holocene tephras preserved in lake sediments have poorer age control and possibly date to ~2500 BP, ~2700 BP and ~6000 BP. These ashes seem to be restricted to coastal or near-coastal sites. Finally, a single record of a ~25,000 BP tephra has also been documented ~100 km to the northeast of Magadan.« less