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Title: Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments

Abstract

The local water structure surrounding ions in aqueous solutions greatly affects their chemical properties such as reaction rates, ion association, and proton and electron transport. These properties result in the behavior of ions in natural aqueous environments. For example ore transport is facilitated by chloride ion pair formation and the reaction of ions in an interface is strongly dependent on the dehydration of the ion hydration shell. We are developing the use of high-­resolution XAFS observations and 1st principles based MD-­XAFS analysis (spectra simulated using 1st principle methods with no adjustable parameters, AIMD) to interpret the solution properties of strongly interacting aqueous solutes under arbitrary pressure and temperature conditions. In the 1st principle MD-­XAFS method density functional theory (DFT) based MD simulations(Car and Parrinello, 1985) are used to generate a large ensemble of structural snap shots of the hydration region. These are then used to generate scattering intensities. I emphasize three points about this novel approach to analyzing XAFS data. 1st: As illustrated in Figure 1, the level of agreement between the calculated and observed intensities is considerably higher than has been obtained by any XAFS analysis to date (note 2nd shell region, R> 2 Å). 2nd: This result wasmore » obtained from a parameter free simulation with no fitting of the interaction potentials to any data. This supports the use of these methods for more difficult environments and more complex solutes (polyions). 3rd: New information about the shell structure (Figure 1) is now available because of this more detailed agreement. We note also that both multiple scattering and second shell features are well represented in the analysis. As far as we know this is the 1st analysis of second shell structure and multiple scattering. Excellent agreement has been obtained for most of the third row metal ions: Ca 2+, Zn 2+, Cu 2+, Ni 2+, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+. Calculations on these systems are demanding because of their open electronic shells, and high ionic charge. Principal Investigator: Professor John Weare (University of California, San Diego) The prediction of the interactions of geochemical fluids with minerals, nanoparticles, and colloids under extreme near surface conditions of temperature (T) and pressure (P) is a grand challenge research need in geosciences (U.S. DOE 2007, Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating the 21st Energy Systems.). To evaluate the impact of these processes on energy production and management strategies it is necessary to have a high level of understanding of the interaction between complex natural fluids and mineral formations. This program emphasizes 1st principle parameter free simulations of complex chemical processes in solutions, in the mineral phase, and in the interfaces between these phases The development of new computational tools (with emphasis on oxide materials and reaction dynamics) tailored to treat wide range of conditions and time scales experienced in such geochemical applications is has been developed. Because of the sensitivity of the interaction in these systems to electronic structure and local bonding environments, and of the need to describe bond breaking/formation, our simulations are based on interactions calculated at the electronic structure level (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). The progress in the computational aspects of program may be summarized in terms of the following themes (objectives); Development of efficient parameter free dynamical simulation technology based on 1st principles force and energy calculations especially adapted for geochemical applications (e.g., mineral, interfaces and aqueous solutions) (continuing program); Calculation of the dynamics of water structure of in the surface-water interface of transition metal oxides and oxihydroxides; and Development of improved (beyond DFT+GGA) electronic structure calculations for minerals and the interface region that more accurately calculate electron correlation, spin density, and localization. The focus of the program is also on the iron oxide and oxihydroxide minerals and Fe 2+(aq)/Fe 3+(cr) oxidation in the mineral solution interface region. These methods included the development of model Hamilitonian methods that can be solved to near convergence for single site models (DMFT) and many-body perturbation methods (MP2, GW); Development of time decomposition methods to extend time scales of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and support the use of high complexity electronic structure calculations (MP2, CCSD(T)) of forces for use in dynamical simulations where very high chemical accuracy is required (microsolvated reactions in absorbed surface layers); and The development of a new linear scaling finite element solver for eigenvalue problem that supports solution of quantum problems with unusual potential and boundary values. Application progress of the above new simulation technology to problems of geochemical interests includes; The prediction of metal oxide surface structure and the reduction/oxidation of Fe 3+(cr)/Fe 2+ (aq) in metal oxide (hematite, goethite)/solution interfaces. Result: water interacts strongly with the 001 Hematite surface; interaction of water with the 100 goethite is weak; The study of ion solvation and the composition of ion hydration shells under extreme conditions (focus on Fe 3+/2+, Al 3+ and Mg 2+ and their hydroxide speciation). Result: Ion association in water solutions can be calculated from 1st principle methods. Efficient sampling of the free energy requires more development; The continued development of new high resolution analysis of XAFS scattering of disordered systems (particularly Al, Mg) and of XANES calculations for aqueous ions. Result: EXAFS spectra can be calculated to high accuracy with DFT level dynamic simulations; The exploration of electron localization and electron transport in metal oxides (highly correlated materials). Result: Proper description of electron localization requires levels of calculation beyond DFT; and Localization of electrons in DFT type Hamiltonians was studied. Result: For very Dirac high exchange new solutions (New unphysical bifrucations) to the eigenvalue problem are found. The program was highly collaborative involving faculty and students in mathematics, physics and computer science departments as well as coworkers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL). The students in this program had the opportunity to develop skills in the development of methods, the implementation of method on high performance parallel computers and the application of these methods to problem in geochemical science. Much of the software that was developed was incorporated in the NWchem software package maintained by PNNL.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. U of Chicago
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The Regents of the University of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1338949
Report Number(s):
DOE-UCSD-2015-JHW
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0003250
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Chen, Ying, Balaska, Eric, Weare, John, Fulton, John, Bogatko, Stuart, Balasubramanian, Mahalingam, Cauet, Emilie, Kerisit, Sebastien, Felmy, Andrew, Schenter, Gregory, and Weare, Jonathan. Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1338949.
Chen, Ying, Balaska, Eric, Weare, John, Fulton, John, Bogatko, Stuart, Balasubramanian, Mahalingam, Cauet, Emilie, Kerisit, Sebastien, Felmy, Andrew, Schenter, Gregory, & Weare, Jonathan. Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments. United States. doi:10.2172/1338949.
Chen, Ying, Balaska, Eric, Weare, John, Fulton, John, Bogatko, Stuart, Balasubramanian, Mahalingam, Cauet, Emilie, Kerisit, Sebastien, Felmy, Andrew, Schenter, Gregory, and Weare, Jonathan. Mon . "Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments". United States. doi:10.2172/1338949. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1338949.
@article{osti_1338949,
title = {Mechanisms of interfacial reactivity in near surface and extreme environments},
author = {Chen, Ying and Balaska, Eric and Weare, John and Fulton, John and Bogatko, Stuart and Balasubramanian, Mahalingam and Cauet, Emilie and Kerisit, Sebastien and Felmy, Andrew and Schenter, Gregory and Weare, Jonathan},
abstractNote = {The local water structure surrounding ions in aqueous solutions greatly affects their chemical properties such as reaction rates, ion association, and proton and electron transport. These properties result in the behavior of ions in natural aqueous environments. For example ore transport is facilitated by chloride ion pair formation and the reaction of ions in an interface is strongly dependent on the dehydration of the ion hydration shell. We are developing the use of high-­resolution XAFS observations and 1st principles based MD-­XAFS analysis (spectra simulated using 1st principle methods with no adjustable parameters, AIMD) to interpret the solution properties of strongly interacting aqueous solutes under arbitrary pressure and temperature conditions. In the 1st principle MD-­XAFS method density functional theory (DFT) based MD simulations(Car and Parrinello, 1985) are used to generate a large ensemble of structural snap shots of the hydration region. These are then used to generate scattering intensities. I emphasize three points about this novel approach to analyzing XAFS data. 1st: As illustrated in Figure 1, the level of agreement between the calculated and observed intensities is considerably higher than has been obtained by any XAFS analysis to date (note 2nd shell region, R> 2 Å). 2nd: This result was obtained from a parameter free simulation with no fitting of the interaction potentials to any data. This supports the use of these methods for more difficult environments and more complex solutes (polyions). 3rd: New information about the shell structure (Figure 1) is now available because of this more detailed agreement. We note also that both multiple scattering and second shell features are well represented in the analysis. As far as we know this is the 1st analysis of second shell structure and multiple scattering. Excellent agreement has been obtained for most of the third row metal ions: Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Cr3+. Calculations on these systems are demanding because of their open electronic shells, and high ionic charge. Principal Investigator: Professor John Weare (University of California, San Diego) The prediction of the interactions of geochemical fluids with minerals, nanoparticles, and colloids under extreme near surface conditions of temperature (T) and pressure (P) is a grand challenge research need in geosciences (U.S. DOE 2007, Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating the 21st Energy Systems.). To evaluate the impact of these processes on energy production and management strategies it is necessary to have a high level of understanding of the interaction between complex natural fluids and mineral formations. This program emphasizes 1st principle parameter free simulations of complex chemical processes in solutions, in the mineral phase, and in the interfaces between these phases The development of new computational tools (with emphasis on oxide materials and reaction dynamics) tailored to treat wide range of conditions and time scales experienced in such geochemical applications is has been developed. Because of the sensitivity of the interaction in these systems to electronic structure and local bonding environments, and of the need to describe bond breaking/formation, our simulations are based on interactions calculated at the electronic structure level (ab-initio molecular dynamics, AIMD). The progress in the computational aspects of program may be summarized in terms of the following themes (objectives); Development of efficient parameter free dynamical simulation technology based on 1st principles force and energy calculations especially adapted for geochemical applications (e.g., mineral, interfaces and aqueous solutions) (continuing program); Calculation of the dynamics of water structure of in the surface-water interface of transition metal oxides and oxihydroxides; and Development of improved (beyond DFT+GGA) electronic structure calculations for minerals and the interface region that more accurately calculate electron correlation, spin density, and localization. The focus of the program is also on the iron oxide and oxihydroxide minerals and Fe2+(aq)/Fe3+(cr) oxidation in the mineral solution interface region. These methods included the development of model Hamilitonian methods that can be solved to near convergence for single site models (DMFT) and many-body perturbation methods (MP2, GW); Development of time decomposition methods to extend time scales of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and support the use of high complexity electronic structure calculations (MP2, CCSD(T)) of forces for use in dynamical simulations where very high chemical accuracy is required (microsolvated reactions in absorbed surface layers); and The development of a new linear scaling finite element solver for eigenvalue problem that supports solution of quantum problems with unusual potential and boundary values. Application progress of the above new simulation technology to problems of geochemical interests includes; The prediction of metal oxide surface structure and the reduction/oxidation of Fe3+(cr)/Fe2+ (aq) in metal oxide (hematite, goethite)/solution interfaces. Result: water interacts strongly with the 001 Hematite surface; interaction of water with the 100 goethite is weak; The study of ion solvation and the composition of ion hydration shells under extreme conditions (focus on Fe3+/2+, Al3+ and Mg2+ and their hydroxide speciation). Result: Ion association in water solutions can be calculated from 1st principle methods. Efficient sampling of the free energy requires more development; The continued development of new high resolution analysis of XAFS scattering of disordered systems (particularly Al, Mg) and of XANES calculations for aqueous ions. Result: EXAFS spectra can be calculated to high accuracy with DFT level dynamic simulations; The exploration of electron localization and electron transport in metal oxides (highly correlated materials). Result: Proper description of electron localization requires levels of calculation beyond DFT; and Localization of electrons in DFT type Hamiltonians was studied. Result: For very Dirac high exchange new solutions (New unphysical bifrucations) to the eigenvalue problem are found. The program was highly collaborative involving faculty and students in mathematics, physics and computer science departments as well as coworkers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL). The students in this program had the opportunity to develop skills in the development of methods, the implementation of method on high performance parallel computers and the application of these methods to problem in geochemical science. Much of the software that was developed was incorporated in the NWchem software package maintained by PNNL.},
doi = {10.2172/1338949},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}