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Title: In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

Abstract

Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Our work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. These results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.
  2. China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Research Center for Internet of Things
  3. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center
  4. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Electronic Science and Engineering
  5. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.
  7. Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). SEU-FEI Nano-Pico Center; Monash Univ., Suzhou (China). Joint Research Inst. of Southeast Univ. and Center for Advanced Materials and Manufacture
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1338605
Report Number(s):
BNL-113302-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2040-3364; NANOHL; R&D Project: MA015MACA; KC0201010
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704; AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nanoscale
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 28; Journal ID: ISSN 2040-3364
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Xu, Feng, Ma, Hongyu, Lei, Shuangying, Sun, Jun, Chen, Jing, Ge, Binghui, Zhu, Yimei, and Sun, Litao. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1039/c6nr02487d.
Xu, Feng, Ma, Hongyu, Lei, Shuangying, Sun, Jun, Chen, Jing, Ge, Binghui, Zhu, Yimei, & Sun, Litao. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene. United States. doi:10.1039/c6nr02487d.
Xu, Feng, Ma, Hongyu, Lei, Shuangying, Sun, Jun, Chen, Jing, Ge, Binghui, Zhu, Yimei, and Sun, Litao. 2016. "In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene". United States. doi:10.1039/c6nr02487d. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1338605.
@article{osti_1338605,
title = {In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene},
author = {Xu, Feng and Ma, Hongyu and Lei, Shuangying and Sun, Jun and Chen, Jing and Ge, Binghui and Zhu, Yimei and Sun, Litao},
abstractNote = {Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Our work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. These results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.},
doi = {10.1039/c6nr02487d},
journal = {Nanoscale},
number = 28,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

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