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Title: Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves

Abstract

When renewable energy resources are installed in electricity grids, they typically increase generation variability and displace thermal generator control action and inertia. Grid operators combat these emerging challenges with advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions to support frequency and provide voltage regulation and protection mechanisms. This paper focuses on providing frequency reserves using autonomous IEC TR 61850-90-7 pointwise frequency-watt (FW) functions that adjust DER active power as a function of measured grid frequency. The importance of incorporating FW functions into a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems is demonstrated in simulation. Effects of FW curve design, including curtailment, deadband, and droop, were analyzed against performance metrics using Latin hypercube sampling for 20%, 70%, and 120% PV penetration scenarios on the Hawaiian island of Lanai. Finally, to understand the financial implications of FW functions to utilities, a performance function was defined based on monetary costs attributable to curtailed PV production, load shedding, and generator wear. An optimization wrapper was then created to find the best FW function curve for each penetration level. Lastly, it was found that in all cases, the utility would save money by implementing appropriate FW functions.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1338316
Report Number(s):
SAND2016-7271J
Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381; 646201
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2156-3381
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY

Citation Formats

Johnson, Jay, Neely, Jason C., Delhotal, Jarod J., and Lave, Matthew. Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/jphotov.2016.2598275.
Johnson, Jay, Neely, Jason C., Delhotal, Jarod J., & Lave, Matthew. Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves. United States. doi:10.1109/jphotov.2016.2598275.
Johnson, Jay, Neely, Jason C., Delhotal, Jarod J., and Lave, Matthew. Fri . "Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves". United States. doi:10.1109/jphotov.2016.2598275. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1338316.
@article{osti_1338316,
title = {Photovoltaic frequency–watt curve design for frequency regulation and fast contingency reserves},
author = {Johnson, Jay and Neely, Jason C. and Delhotal, Jarod J. and Lave, Matthew},
abstractNote = {When renewable energy resources are installed in electricity grids, they typically increase generation variability and displace thermal generator control action and inertia. Grid operators combat these emerging challenges with advanced distributed energy resource (DER) functions to support frequency and provide voltage regulation and protection mechanisms. This paper focuses on providing frequency reserves using autonomous IEC TR 61850-90-7 pointwise frequency-watt (FW) functions that adjust DER active power as a function of measured grid frequency. The importance of incorporating FW functions into a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems is demonstrated in simulation. Effects of FW curve design, including curtailment, deadband, and droop, were analyzed against performance metrics using Latin hypercube sampling for 20%, 70%, and 120% PV penetration scenarios on the Hawaiian island of Lanai. Finally, to understand the financial implications of FW functions to utilities, a performance function was defined based on monetary costs attributable to curtailed PV production, load shedding, and generator wear. An optimization wrapper was then created to find the best FW function curve for each penetration level. Lastly, it was found that in all cases, the utility would save money by implementing appropriate FW functions.},
doi = {10.1109/jphotov.2016.2598275},
journal = {IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics},
number = 6,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 02 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Sep 02 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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