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Title: Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

Abstract

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human comparedmore » to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1337237
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121715
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8502; 400412000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Aerosol Science; Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: C
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; three dimensional computational fluid; dynamics; particle deposition; New Zealand white rabbit; human bacillus anthracis; lung

Citation Formats

Kabilan, S., Suffield, S. R., Recknagle, K. P., Jacob, R. E., Einstein, D. R., Kuprat, A. P., Carson, J. P., Colby, S. M., Saunders, J. H., Hines, S. A., Teeguarden, J. G., Straub, T. M., Moe, M., Taft, S. C., and Corley, R. A.. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
Kabilan, S., Suffield, S. R., Recknagle, K. P., Jacob, R. E., Einstein, D. R., Kuprat, A. P., Carson, J. P., Colby, S. M., Saunders, J. H., Hines, S. A., Teeguarden, J. G., Straub, T. M., Moe, M., Taft, S. C., & Corley, R. A.. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
Kabilan, S., Suffield, S. R., Recknagle, K. P., Jacob, R. E., Einstein, D. R., Kuprat, A. P., Carson, J. P., Colby, S. M., Saunders, J. H., Hines, S. A., Teeguarden, J. G., Straub, T. M., Moe, M., Taft, S. C., and Corley, R. A.. Thu . "Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
@article{osti_1337237,
title = {Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways},
author = {Kabilan, S. and Suffield, S. R. and Recknagle, K. P. and Jacob, R. E. and Einstein, D. R. and Kuprat, A. P. and Carson, J. P. and Colby, S. M. and Saunders, J. H. and Hines, S. A. and Teeguarden, J. G. and Straub, T. M. and Moe, M. and Taft, S. C. and Corley, R. A.},
abstractNote = {Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011},
journal = {Journal of Aerosol Science},
number = C,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}