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Title: Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA

Abstract

Safety is a key element of any device designed to store energy, in particular electrochemical batteries, which convert energy of chemical reactions to electrical energy. Safety considerations are especially important when applied to large automotive batteries designed for propulsion of electric vehicles (EV). The high amount of energy stored in EV battery packs translates to higher probability of fire in case of severe deformation of battery compartment due to automotive crash or impact caused by road debris. While such demand for safety has resulted in heavier protection of battery enclosure, the mechanisms leading to internal short circuit due to deformation of the battery are not well understood even on the level of a single electrochemical cell. Moreover, not all internal shorts result in thermal runaway, and thus a criterion for catastrophic failure needs to be developed. This report summarizes the effort to pinpoint the critical deformation necessary to trigger a short via experimental study on large format automotive Li-ion cells in a rigid spherical indentation configuration. Cases of single cells and cell stacks undergoing indentation were investigated. Mechanical properties of cell components were determined via experimental testing and served as input for constitutive models of Finite Element (FE) analysis. Themore » ability of the model to predict the behavior of cell(s) under spherical indentation and to predict failure leading to internal short circuit was validated against experiments. The necessity of resolving pairs of negative and positive electrodes in the FE formulation is clearly demonstrated by comparing layer-resolved simulations with simulations involving batteries with homogenized material properties. Finally, a coupled solution of electrochemical-electrical-thermal (EET) problem on a Nissan Leaf battery module was demonstrated towards the goal of extending the simulations to module level.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1337031
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/435
453040170
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Kalnaus, Sergiy, Kumar, Abhishek, Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T., Simunovic, Srdjan, Slattery, Stuart R., Turner, John A., Wang, Hsin, Allu, Srikanth, Gorti, Sarma B., and Turcksin, Bruno R. Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1337031.
Kalnaus, Sergiy, Kumar, Abhishek, Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T., Simunovic, Srdjan, Slattery, Stuart R., Turner, John A., Wang, Hsin, Allu, Srikanth, Gorti, Sarma B., & Turcksin, Bruno R. Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA. United States. doi:10.2172/1337031.
Kalnaus, Sergiy, Kumar, Abhishek, Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T., Simunovic, Srdjan, Slattery, Stuart R., Turner, John A., Wang, Hsin, Allu, Srikanth, Gorti, Sarma B., and Turcksin, Bruno R. Fri . "Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA". United States. doi:10.2172/1337031. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1337031.
@article{osti_1337031,
title = {Crashworthiness Models for Automotive Batteries - Report on Project 2088-A031-15 for DOT/NHTSA},
author = {Kalnaus, Sergiy and Kumar, Abhishek and Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. and Simunovic, Srdjan and Slattery, Stuart R. and Turner, John A. and Wang, Hsin and Allu, Srikanth and Gorti, Sarma B. and Turcksin, Bruno R.},
abstractNote = {Safety is a key element of any device designed to store energy, in particular electrochemical batteries, which convert energy of chemical reactions to electrical energy. Safety considerations are especially important when applied to large automotive batteries designed for propulsion of electric vehicles (EV). The high amount of energy stored in EV battery packs translates to higher probability of fire in case of severe deformation of battery compartment due to automotive crash or impact caused by road debris. While such demand for safety has resulted in heavier protection of battery enclosure, the mechanisms leading to internal short circuit due to deformation of the battery are not well understood even on the level of a single electrochemical cell. Moreover, not all internal shorts result in thermal runaway, and thus a criterion for catastrophic failure needs to be developed. This report summarizes the effort to pinpoint the critical deformation necessary to trigger a short via experimental study on large format automotive Li-ion cells in a rigid spherical indentation configuration. Cases of single cells and cell stacks undergoing indentation were investigated. Mechanical properties of cell components were determined via experimental testing and served as input for constitutive models of Finite Element (FE) analysis. The ability of the model to predict the behavior of cell(s) under spherical indentation and to predict failure leading to internal short circuit was validated against experiments. The necessity of resolving pairs of negative and positive electrodes in the FE formulation is clearly demonstrated by comparing layer-resolved simulations with simulations involving batteries with homogenized material properties. Finally, a coupled solution of electrochemical-electrical-thermal (EET) problem on a Nissan Leaf battery module was demonstrated towards the goal of extending the simulations to module level.},
doi = {10.2172/1337031},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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