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Title: X-ray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters of galaxies: Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z = 1.2

Abstract

X-ray cavities are key tracers of mechanical (or radio mode) heating arising from the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Here, we report on a survey for X-ray cavities in 83 massive, high-redshift ($$0.4\lt z\lt 1.2$$) clusters of galaxies selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. Based on Chandra X-ray images, we find a total of six clusters having symmetric pairs of surface brightness depressions consistent with the picture of radio jets inflating X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM). Furthermore, the majority of these detections are of relatively low significance and require deeper follow-up data in order to be confirmed. Further, this search will miss small (<10 kpc) X-ray cavities that are unresolved by Chandra at high ($$z\gtrsim 0.5$$) redshift. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the power generated by AGN feedback in BCGs has remained unchanged for over half of the age of the universe ($$\gt 7$$ Gyr at $$z\sim 0.8$$). On average, the detected X-ray cavities have powers of $$(0.8-5)\times {{10}^{45}}\ {\rm erg}\ {{{\rm s}}^{-1}}$$, enthalpies of $$(3-6)\times {{10}^{59}}\ {\rm erg}$$, and radii of ~17 kpc. Integrating over 7 Gyr, we find that the supermassive black holes in BCGs may have accreted 108 to several $${{10}^{9}}\;{{M}_{\odot }}$$ of material to power these outflows. This level of accretion indicates that significant supermassive black hole growth may occur not only at early times, in the quasar era, but at late times as well. We also find that X-ray cavities at high redshift may inject an excess heat of 0.1–1.0 keV per particle into the hot ICM above and beyond the energy needed to offset cooling. Though our result needs to be confirmed, we note that the magnitude of excess heating is similar to the energy needed to preheat clusters, break self-similarity, and explain the excess entropy in hot atmospheres.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [4]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [7];  [4];  [7];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [4];  [15]
  1. Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Dept. of Physics
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Astrophysics and Space Research
  3. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics and Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  4. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  5. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Dept. of Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP) and Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  7. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Univ., Garching (Germany)
  8. Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics
  10. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Cetner for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics
  11. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany). Dept. of Physics
  12. Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Bonn (Germany)
  13. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Korea Astronomy and Space Science Inst., Daejeon (Korea)
  14. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Inst. for Astronomy
  15. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), La Serena (Chile)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1336376
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-16762
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 805; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; black hole physics; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: jet; x-ray: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Forman, W. R., Allen, S. W., Bleem, L. E., Ashby, M. L. N., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Dietrich, J. P., Jones, C., Liu, J., Reichardt, C. L., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Schrabback, T., Song, J., Stalder, B., Vikhlinin, A., and Zenteno, A. X-ray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters of galaxies: Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z = 1.2. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/35.
Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Forman, W. R., Allen, S. W., Bleem, L. E., Ashby, M. L. N., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Dietrich, J. P., Jones, C., Liu, J., Reichardt, C. L., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Schrabback, T., Song, J., Stalder, B., Vikhlinin, A., & Zenteno, A. X-ray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters of galaxies: Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z = 1.2. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/35.
Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., McDonald, M., Benson, B. A., Forman, W. R., Allen, S. W., Bleem, L. E., Ashby, M. L. N., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Dietrich, J. P., Jones, C., Liu, J., Reichardt, C. L., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Schrabback, T., Song, J., Stalder, B., Vikhlinin, A., and Zenteno, A. Mon . "X-ray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters of galaxies: Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z = 1.2". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/35. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1336376.
@article{osti_1336376,
title = {X-ray cavities in a sample of 83 SPT-selected clusters of galaxies: Tracing the evolution of AGN feedback in clusters of galaxies out to z = 1.2},
author = {Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and McDonald, M. and Benson, B. A. and Forman, W. R. and Allen, S. W. and Bleem, L. E. and Ashby, M. L. N. and Bocquet, S. and Brodwin, M. and Dietrich, J. P. and Jones, C. and Liu, J. and Reichardt, C. L. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Saro, A. and Schrabback, T. and Song, J. and Stalder, B. and Vikhlinin, A. and Zenteno, A.},
abstractNote = {X-ray cavities are key tracers of mechanical (or radio mode) heating arising from the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Here, we report on a survey for X-ray cavities in 83 massive, high-redshift ($0.4\lt z\lt 1.2$) clusters of galaxies selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. Based on Chandra X-ray images, we find a total of six clusters having symmetric pairs of surface brightness depressions consistent with the picture of radio jets inflating X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM). Furthermore, the majority of these detections are of relatively low significance and require deeper follow-up data in order to be confirmed. Further, this search will miss small (<10 kpc) X-ray cavities that are unresolved by Chandra at high ($z\gtrsim 0.5$) redshift. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the power generated by AGN feedback in BCGs has remained unchanged for over half of the age of the universe ($\gt 7$ Gyr at $z\sim 0.8$). On average, the detected X-ray cavities have powers of $(0.8-5)\times {{10}^{45}}\ {\rm erg}\ {{{\rm s}}^{-1}}$, enthalpies of $(3-6)\times {{10}^{59}}\ {\rm erg}$, and radii of ~17 kpc. Integrating over 7 Gyr, we find that the supermassive black holes in BCGs may have accreted 108 to several ${{10}^{9}}\;{{M}_{\odot }}$ of material to power these outflows. This level of accretion indicates that significant supermassive black hole growth may occur not only at early times, in the quasar era, but at late times as well. We also find that X-ray cavities at high redshift may inject an excess heat of 0.1–1.0 keV per particle into the hot ICM above and beyond the energy needed to offset cooling. Though our result needs to be confirmed, we note that the magnitude of excess heating is similar to the energy needed to preheat clusters, break self-similarity, and explain the excess entropy in hot atmospheres.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/805/1/35},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 1,
volume = 805,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

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