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Title: Double and triple-harmonic RF buckets and their use for bunch squeezing in AGS

Abstract

For the past several years we have merged bunches in AGS in order to achieve the desired intensity per bunch prior to injection into RHIC. The merging is done on a flat porch at or above AGS injection energy. Because the merges involve the reduction of the RF harmonic number by a factor of 2 (for a 2 to 1 merge) and then a factor of 3 (for a 3 to 1 merge), one requires RF frequencies 6hf s, 3hf s, 2hf s and hf s, where f s is the revolution frequency on the porch and h = 4 is the fundamental harmonic number. The standard AGS RF cavities cannot operate at the lowest frequencies 2hf s and hf s; these are provided by two modified cavities. Upon completion of the merges, the bunches are sitting in harmonic h buckets. In order to be accelerated they need to be squeezed into harmonic 3h buckets. This is accomplished by producing a double-harmonic bucket in which harmonics h and 2h act in concert, and then a triple-harmonic bucket in which harmonics h, 2h, and 3h act in concert. Simulations have shown that the squeeze presents an acceptance bottleneck which limits themore » longitudinal emittance that can be put into the harmonic 3h bucket. In this note the areas of the double and triple-harmonic buckets are calculated explicitly, and it is shown that these go through a minimum as the RF voltages are raised to the desired values. Several RF voltage ranges are examined, and the acceptance bottleneck is determined for each of these. Finally, the acceptance bottleneck for Au77+ bunches in AGS is calculated for several RF voltage ranges. The main result is that the RF voltages for the low-frequency harmonic h and 2h cavities both must be at least 22 kV in order to achieve an acceptance of 0:6 eV s per nucleon. If the harmonic h and 2h voltages are 15 and 22 kV, respectively, then the acceptance is reduced to 0:548 eV s per nucleon.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Alternating Gradient Synchrotron
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1336134
Report Number(s):
BNL-112605-2016-IR
R&D Project: KBCH139; KB0202011; TRN: US1701396
DOE Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BROOKHAVEN AGS; HARMONICS; CAVITY RESONATORS; BEAM BUNCHING; BEAM DYNAMICS; SIMULATION; BEAM EMITTANCE; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; RF SYSTEMS; Alternating Gradient Synchrotron

Citation Formats

Gardner, C. J.. Double and triple-harmonic RF buckets and their use for bunch squeezing in AGS. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1336134.
Gardner, C. J.. Double and triple-harmonic RF buckets and their use for bunch squeezing in AGS. United States. doi:10.2172/1336134.
Gardner, C. J.. Wed . "Double and triple-harmonic RF buckets and their use for bunch squeezing in AGS". United States. doi:10.2172/1336134. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1336134.
@article{osti_1336134,
title = {Double and triple-harmonic RF buckets and their use for bunch squeezing in AGS},
author = {Gardner, C. J.},
abstractNote = {For the past several years we have merged bunches in AGS in order to achieve the desired intensity per bunch prior to injection into RHIC. The merging is done on a flat porch at or above AGS injection energy. Because the merges involve the reduction of the RF harmonic number by a factor of 2 (for a 2 to 1 merge) and then a factor of 3 (for a 3 to 1 merge), one requires RF frequencies 6hfs, 3hfs, 2hfs and hfs, where fs is the revolution frequency on the porch and h = 4 is the fundamental harmonic number. The standard AGS RF cavities cannot operate at the lowest frequencies 2hfs and hfs; these are provided by two modified cavities. Upon completion of the merges, the bunches are sitting in harmonic h buckets. In order to be accelerated they need to be squeezed into harmonic 3h buckets. This is accomplished by producing a double-harmonic bucket in which harmonics h and 2h act in concert, and then a triple-harmonic bucket in which harmonics h, 2h, and 3h act in concert. Simulations have shown that the squeeze presents an acceptance bottleneck which limits the longitudinal emittance that can be put into the harmonic 3h bucket. In this note the areas of the double and triple-harmonic buckets are calculated explicitly, and it is shown that these go through a minimum as the RF voltages are raised to the desired values. Several RF voltage ranges are examined, and the acceptance bottleneck is determined for each of these. Finally, the acceptance bottleneck for Au77+ bunches in AGS is calculated for several RF voltage ranges. The main result is that the RF voltages for the low-frequency harmonic h and 2h cavities both must be at least 22 kV in order to achieve an acceptance of 0:6 eV s per nucleon. If the harmonic h and 2h voltages are 15 and 22 kV, respectively, then the acceptance is reduced to 0:548 eV s per nucleon.},
doi = {10.2172/1336134},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 24 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Aug 24 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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