skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals

Abstract

The lack of stronger acoustic signal, longer service life and smaller size from off-the-shelf transmitters has precluded intensive research for environmental monitoring of certain species using acoustic telemetry techniques. In this study we developed a small long-life acoustic transmitter with the length of approximately 24.2 mm, the diameter of approximately 5.0 mm, and the dry weight of approximately 0.72 g. The new transmitter can generate an acoustic signal at selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m. The new acoustic transmitter has an operation lifetime up to a year or longer at a pulse rate interval of 15 seconds, and also has a signal detection range up to at least 500 meters that enhances detection probability in a quiet environment. Furthermore, the new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible and is being deployed for long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1336002
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-110558
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; acoustic transmitter; acoustic telemetry; environmental monitoring; PZT; source level; juvenile sturgeon

Citation Formats

Lu, J., Deng, Z. D., Li, H., Myjak, M. J., Martinez, J. J., Xiao, J., Brown, R. S., and Cartmell, S. S. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4967941.
Lu, J., Deng, Z. D., Li, H., Myjak, M. J., Martinez, J. J., Xiao, J., Brown, R. S., & Cartmell, S. S. A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4967941.
Lu, J., Deng, Z. D., Li, H., Myjak, M. J., Martinez, J. J., Xiao, J., Brown, R. S., and Cartmell, S. S. 2016. "A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4967941. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1336002.
@article{osti_1336002,
title = {A small long-life acoustic transmitter for studying the behavior of aquatic animals},
author = {Lu, J. and Deng, Z. D. and Li, H. and Myjak, M. J. and Martinez, J. J. and Xiao, J. and Brown, R. S. and Cartmell, S. S.},
abstractNote = {The lack of stronger acoustic signal, longer service life and smaller size from off-the-shelf transmitters has precluded intensive research for environmental monitoring of certain species using acoustic telemetry techniques. In this study we developed a small long-life acoustic transmitter with the length of approximately 24.2 mm, the diameter of approximately 5.0 mm, and the dry weight of approximately 0.72 g. The new transmitter can generate an acoustic signal at selectable source level between 159 and 163 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m. The new acoustic transmitter has an operation lifetime up to a year or longer at a pulse rate interval of 15 seconds, and also has a signal detection range up to at least 500 meters that enhances detection probability in a quiet environment. Furthermore, the new technology makes long-term acoustic telemetry studies of small fish possible and is being deployed for long-term tracking of juvenile sturgeon.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4967941},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • This paper presents a self-powered underwater acoustic transmitter using a piezoelectric beam to harvest the mechanical energy from fish swimming. This transmitter does not require a battery and is demonstrated in live fish. It transmits an acoustic waveform as the implanted fish swims. It enables long-term monitoring of aquatic animals.
  • A new method for the analysis of behavior in small free-swimming aquatic organisms is described. In this procedure, called countercurrent separation, a dense solution flows down along the bottom of an inclined chamber while a light solution flows in the opposite direction, upward along the top of the chamber. The attraction of animals (injected into the center of the chamber) to one solution or the other is then determined by observing the proportion of animals that emerges from the chamber in that solution. When used with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, it is estimated that the apparatus is equivalent to atmore » least nine theoretical plates.« less
  • Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), and 4-chloroaniline (4-CA) were dosed into the water of small experimental ponds in Southern Germany. The average concentration of the chemicals in the pond water during the application period (4-6 weeks) was about 50 micrograms/liter. Chemical residue concentrations were determined in water, sediment, and flora and fauna species up to 166 weeks after application. The decrease of all chemicals in the water phase follows exponential functions and can be correlated to some extent with the physicochemical properties such as volatility from water and vapor pressure. Although chemically quite different, the residual behavior of the model compoundsmore » followed a similar pattern resulting in relatively high initial concentrations in biota and a slow buildup and subsequent decline of concentrations in the sediment. As to some fauna species (backswimmers and libellula larvae) and to sediment (0- to 20-cm layers), even 3 years after application, 14C residues of about 0.1 mg/kg could be found. In all analyzed flora species, however, no more residues could be measured in the new vegetation period after application. The amounts of the chemicals used did not cause detectable symptoms of poisoning over the investigation period. Anisols and azo compounds were found to be conversion products of pentachloronitrobenzene and 4-chloroaniline.« less
  • A new coded electromyogram (CEMG) transmitter was recently introduced to the market to allow broader application and greater flexibility of configurations. CEMG transmitters were implanted into twenty steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and calibrated to swimming speed in a respirometer. Linear regression models showed a strong positive relationship between output from CEMG transmitters and swimming speed. However, when signals from multiple transmitters were grouped, the relationship between CEMG output and swimming speed was less accurate than if signals from individual transmitters were used. The results, therefore, do not suggest that the CEMG transmitters acted similarly in all fish. Calibration data from onemore » transmitter was not readily transferable among multiple fish implanted with the same transmitter, suggesting that the same transmitter implanted in multiple fish also performed dissimilarly. Variation in fish length, fish weight, location of transmitter implantation (distance from snout), and distance between the electrode tips did not account for the variation in models. Transmitters also had a relatively small working range of output at the swimming speeds tested. Nevertheless, new CEMG transmitters appear to have improved capabilities and should allow researchers to examine the locomotory behavior and energetics of smaller fish than previously possible with greater ease and less expense.« less